Sunday, February 27, 2011

TIck Tock By Nico Moschetto

I. Discovery

The alarm clock has been a life saving tool for many years. the first and earliest notes of an alarm clock were founded in germany around the 15th century. the concept was quite simple back then, most alarm clocks had a cam (a rotating or sliding piece in a mechanical linkage used especially in transforming rotary motion) that rotates every 12 hours. they also have a notch that which a lever falls onto when the alarm is triggered releasing gears that drive a hammer onto a bell. classic right?

Hubbell marine movement with 1865 patent datefigure 1

II. Discovery

while i just recently explained how the olden day alarm clocks work, the first recorded inventor or maker of the alarm clock was Joseph Knibb in 1690. these facts mean nothing seeing that alarm clocks were starting to emerge around the 15th century. the english clockmakers started emigrating to the US around the 18th century bringing with them new ideas for the alarm clock. they started sprouting up around the 1800s like crazy and from then on there have been gigantic modifications ranging from digital to, well, now just digital. one of the last major old gear clocks standing is of course big ben in England.

III. digital time keeping

during today's technological enhancements, digital time keeping seems to be in everything from your ipod to your car. everything is on the same digital system. although if you have an old car i think you may still do it manually. these digital time keeping advances are vital to our daily life. imagine your life for one day without the advantage of having the time on your pocket nessecities of today. asking for the time sounds pretty old and annoying during these times. just a little something to think about.
figure 2

IV. Impact on the World

digital time keeping has been one of the quietest advantages of today's modern technonlogical world. its almost as if nobody thought twice about how important time keeping was, that is until daylight savings was founded. these improvements on the clock have been great for our modern society. i always love being able to pull out my phone and check the time. anyway im greatful for many of the advantages we have in life so yay time!

V. journal article

My most helpful article was the History of the Alarm Clock (go figure). this article was helpful to me because it was very clear on its facts and helped explain some of the history to me. it also provided me with some resources like pictures and diagrams to help me understand the make up of an alarm clock. there were also interesting little tidbits about major contirbutors of the alarm clock invention.

Works Cited

http://clockhistory.com/alarmClockHistory/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cam

http://inventors.about.com/od/cstartinventions/a/clock.htm

Friday, February 18, 2011

Plants on Security Duty - Kelby Fruecht

Plant Security

I. Introduction

Imagine if you were walking in an airport and all you had to do was check-in and buy your tickets to be able to just jump right on a plane. Imagine if we no longer had to go through airport security in order to get on a plane. Well, even though this may seem impossible to do without jeopardizing our own safety, just recently there has been a break through that might change the way security operates not only in airports, but also in government buildings, schools, and any other facility or place that would require more security to ensure our safety. The answer to this question is a plant. Not just any type of plant, but a plant genetically engineered to identify and notice when a bomb is nearby or in the same area where the plant is planted.


II. Discovery

So you may be asking just how it’s possible for a plant to replace the security that checks our bags in airports. Well, the answer lies with changing the genetics of the plant. Professors and Scientist at Colorado State University have discovered a way to change the genetics of the plant making it capable of turning white when TNT and other explosive odors are sensed in the air. Head Professor June Medford states, “Plants can’t run or hide from threats, so they’ve developed sophisticated systems to detect and respond to their environment.” They were able to take the plant and alter the genetics of the chromosomes and “program” the plant to turn white when it senses the explosive material in the air. They made the plant so when it does sense TNT or other bomb material; it triggers the plant to drain all of the chlorophyll out of the chloroplast, which is the green pigment found inside of plants and is also used in photosynthesis. The benefits of having these types of plants as part of are security are more beneficial than you would suspect. While having a bomb-sniffing dog that cost thousands of dollars in order for the dog to be trained, taking care of the dog with food expenses, and also paying for a cop to be at the airport is really expensive. They also aren’t capable of covering every single area of the airport and most importantly is that a dog isn’t 100% accurate. There are some times when the dog accidentally doesn’t detect the scent either because the dog was temporarily distracted or the smell wasn’t strong enough. As for the plant, it is predicted that each of these plants will only cost about a few cents! What is also remarkable about the plant is that they are 100 times more sensitive than the

nose of a dog!

Here is a video link to a good overview video:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kObTt_dR7IM&feature=player_embedded

Below is a picture of Prototype Plant Sentiels:





III. Biography of Investigator


The Investigator of discovering this capability is Professor June Medford. She is currently a professor at Colorado State University where she made this discovery in plant genetics. She earned her Ph. D. for Synthetic Biology at Yale University. While the research of this new plant to complete the plant characteristic is underway, Medford confidently believes that the research and understanding of the plant will be completed in just three years. Her goal is to make the plant not only react faster, but also make the plant capable of reacting to more than one substance. With a 7.9 million dollar fund from U.S. Defense administration, the goal of perfecting the plant could come true. Although she is a new face in the science community media, she definitely will be heard of in the years to come once this genetically enhanced plant is perfected.

IV. Impact on the World/Humanity

The link below is to an AWESOME video that shows how this new discovery can change the world! Must Watch!!

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sj0Zom2SRmE&feature=player_embedded#at

This new invention of changing the genetics of a plant can change our world forever. We would no longer have to spend the unnecessary amounts of money in order to keep us safe from possible terrorist attacks and bomb threats. Every single airport in the world would be able to have a biological security that will not only ensure the safety of countries whose airports are vulnerable to bomb penetration because they aren’t able to afford the modern security that the United States has set the bar for. This security innovation has the possibility to lowering the price of your next plane ticket because flight companies would no longer have to pay for the type of security you see at our airports. We would no longer have to pay for this extra expense on the flight ticket. These plants might find its way in our airports in the next few years. This breakthrough could possibly be the answer to not only a safer world, but also a more affordable one as well.


V. Journal Article Review

The Huffington Post looked like a reliable source for the information that I found on my topic. I also confirmed its information from other reliable sources and was able to compile the right information about this new discovery. Although it isn’t too big of a source, it gave me a good grasp of the general overall idea of this genetically changed plant. I thought this was a good topic because it totally ties in with what we are learning in class and Professor Medford and this new invention is a prime example of how we can apply what we learn in the class room to invent things that we never thought possible.

Citations:

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/01/27/bombdetecting-plants-colo_n_814848.html

http://www.foxnews.com/scitech/2011/01/27/bomb-sniffing-plants-fight-terrorism/#ixzz1EHSb3qs4

http://gizmodo.com/#!5744309/professor-breeds-bomb+detecting-plants

http://www.biology.colostate.edu/faculty/medford

Hot Air Balloon by Lisa Dunleavy

Introduction
Up, up, and away! Have you ever looked up into the sky and seen bright colors floating in the sky in the shape of a balloon? Then do you wonder how hot air balloons work? Hot air balloons were started by an array of scientists who worked off each other’s discoveries in the 1700s, and today it has turned into a fun leisure activity or a commercial advertisement.
Discovery
There were two brothers who launched the discovery of hot air balloons, Joseph Michael and Jacques Etienne Montgolfier. In 1782, these brothers hadn’t been inventors, wanted to investigate why smoke rose. Furthermore, they wanted to know if smoke could life a person into the sky. Also, humans have always been intrigued by the thought of being able to fly like birds. The invention of the hot air balloon made flight in the air possible (First Hot Air Balloon).
Inventors
Although, Joseph Michael and Jacques Etienne Montgolfier were the inventors of the hot air balloon, they couldn’t have done it without the help of Henry Cavendish. In 1766 Henry Cavendish was the first scientist that was able to isolate hydrogen. Hydrogen is the lightest gas, lighter than air. He then had the idea that it could be used to life things from the Earth because of its lightness. However, he didn’t further per sue his idea (Hot Air Balloon History).
Joseph Michael and Jacques Etienne Montgolfier lived in France and were paper makers. Their father wanted them to have a good education and sent them away to go to a private school. So they were educated, but after their education they continued to work on their paper mill. In 1782, they started their experiments to find if it really was possible to lift things from the Earth by using hydrogen gas said by Henry Cavendish. They filled a silk bag with hot air. The silk bag was less dense than the air, so it floated. Then the two brothers made their experiment a little bigger. Instead of using a small silk bag, they made a large bag that was shaped like a sphere. Then, they filled it with hot air from a fire and sent farm animals up in it. The farm animals were in a basket hanging below. After this success, they decided to send a human up in the hot air balloon. On November 21, 1783 they sent Pilatre De Rozier, a scientist, and Marquisd’Artandes on a hot air balloon flight in Paris. They were tied down for safety; however, they reached a height of 300 feet and stayed in the air for 20 minutes. Once the news of this success spread, the advancements on the hot air balloon spread rapidly. December 1, 1783 Jacques Charles and Moel Roberts lasted 27 minutes in the air in Paris as well, being the first officially in flight (in the other experiment, the balloon was tied down). Then, on June 4 in 1784, Elizabeth Thible became the first women to fly in a hot air balloon in Lyons, France.
What is a hot air balloon made of?
The major principle that makes the hot air balloon work is that hot air rises in cooler air. Why? The hot air rises because it is less dense. There are three main parts to a hot air balloon, the envelope, the basket, and the burner (How The Balloon Works).
The envelope, shown in figure 2, is the actually balloon part of the hot air balloon. Today it is made of nylon strips which are called gores. These gores go from the bottom of the envelope (balloon part) to the crown. The bottom two thirds is made of a combination or polyester and nylon this is similar to what a parachute would be made of. The envelope has to be woven extremely tightly in order to be air tight, keeping in the hot air which makes it float. Polyester and nylon are used because they are both lightweight and they are resistant to the high temperatures that are required for the balloon to rise. The bottom part of the envelope is called the skirt. The skirt is made of a material called Nomex. This different material is used because it’s extremely fire resistant (it’s the same material that fire fighters use) and the base of the envelope is what’s most exposed to the flames. The top one third of the envelope is made by the material hyperlast. Hyperlast is used because it is extremely strong. Also, it has a silicon coating on it to prevent mould or fungi build up. There are many different shapes, sizes, colors, and designs that envelopes come in.
The basket is another important part in hot air balloons as shown in figure 3. Without the basket there wouldn’t be any passengers or a conductor, and furthermore, there wouldn’t be a spot for the gas cylinders. Today, baskets are made of Kooboo and Palambang cane because of their lightweight, flexibility, and durability. It’s important to be flexible and durable for landing because when the hot air balloon lands, there is a lot of force exerted on it and the flexibility helps it absorb some of the pressure. Baskets come in many different shapes and sizes, but there are two main types of baskets, Open baskets and T-partition baskets. The open basket is completely open so that you could walk around on the whole thing as seen in figure 4.
Whereas the closed basket, as seen in figure 5, has different sections.
The last key component of the hot air balloon is the burner shown in figure 6. The burner is what allows the balloon to go in the air. The propane needed to heat the air is stored in cylinders in the balloon basket. The propane is stored in very compressed cylinders and is ignited by a pilot light. The flame burns and heats up the metal around it, heating the air. There are many different types of burners depending on the size of the hot air balloon and there can be quieter flames also.
Once you get up, how do you get down? First, you go up by opening the propane valve, which goes to the burner and lights a flame which then goes into the envelope. The more you open the valve, the more heat is released, so the rate of going up increases faster. Now, how do you get down? The parachute valve at the top of the balloon is a circle that has been cut out of the top of the balloon. Attached to the circle is a chord. The pilot just needs to pull the chord so the valve opens. This decreases the temperature bringing the hot air balloon closer to the ground (How the Balloon Works).
How is it used today?
The hot air balloon is used all over the world today. They are used for leisure activities, commercial flight, advertising for companies, sport, and weddings. You can go in a balloon ride for fun, for your wedding, or even to advertise your business. Hot air balloon has now even become a sport (How The Balloon Works)!
Conclusion
The hot air balloon was started by two brothers, who worked in a paper mill, Joseph Michael and Jacques Etienne Montgolfier (First Hot Air Balloon). Then, many scientists built off of their ideas. Today, their advances and trails have made a great impact on the world. Up, up, and away!
Journal Article: Hot Air Balloon Engine
This journal article talks about the balloon engine. It talks about how a balloon works and the math behind the engineering of the balloon. It discusses the ability to make an engine for a hot air balloon. The costs that it would have and also how it would impact the environment. It also talks about the heights that it could and the potential that it has (Hot Air Balloon Engine).
Bibliography
"How the Balloon Works." Eballoon.org. Web. .
"The First Hot Air Balloon." Web. .

"Hot Air Balloon History - Invention of the Hot Air Balloon." The Great Idea Finder - Celebrating the Spirit of Innovation. Web. 10 Feb. 2011. .

“Hot Air Balloon Engine.” Renewable Energy. Elsevier. Web. .

Unknown exteriors (the universe) – Gustavo Grinsteins







I. First idea of the universe

The Greek mathematician Pythagoras Of Samos had a cozy picture of the universe. The earth was at the center, surrounded by a series of ever larger spheres, having the sun, the moon, the stars, and the other planets as part of these system. As the spheres turned Pythagoras describe that movement as a musical note. As they turned together they produced a perfect harmony (harmony is a state recognized by great philosophers as beauty, a compound is termed beautiful only when its parts are in harmonious combination). After this theory Aristotle a Greek philosopher tried to solve the idea of what caused he spheres to move, By the earth being static Aristotle thought that it wasn’t the cause of the movement of the spheres, instead he inferred that the movement of the outer most sphere was causing the movement of the other spheres. But what was causing this last sphere to move? Aristotle answer was something he called “primer mover” that resembled God. The universe described by Aristotle and Pythagoras was finite. Beyond the outer most sphere there was only the “prime mover”.

II. The Copernican Universe: “ A Solar System”

Nicolaus Copernicus Change the hole idea about the earth being the center of the universe. Copernicus borne in Poland was an astronomer, a student of economics, law and medicine, but his doctorade in canon law and spend his life as a canon in the cathedral in Frombork. This fact is interesting because the church was insistent in that the earth was the center of the universe. Many people before him thought that the Earth and other astronomical figures revolve around the sun (one of the ancient Greek astronomers, Aristarchus, did have ideas similar to those more fully developed by Copernicus but they were rejected in favor of the geocentric or earth-centered scheme as was espoused by Aristotle). Copernicus was a man of high reputation so he was allowed to present his theories in a series of lectures in Rome. The Copernican universe had the sun at its center with, in order, Mercury, Venus, earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn and then the stars rotating around it. The “revolution of the celestial spheres”, probably was the greatest achievement in that era.

III. Galileo Galilei

Galileo was a brilliant astronomer, mathematician, physicist, and artist. Galileo learned of the invention of the telescope in Holland. He devised a vastly superior model. Galileo made a series of profound discoveries using his new telescope, including the moons of the planet Jupiter and the phases of the planet Venus (similar to those of Earth's moon). This caused Galileo support in the theory of the Copernican universe, causing to put him in direct opposition to church teachings. He was placed under house arrest and forced to deceive his conclusions.


IV. Science detects a “big bang” at the beginning of time.

We certainly know that our universe exists, however, this knowledge alone has not satisfied human request

for further understanding. Our curiosity has led us to question our place in this universe and furthermore, the place of the universe itself. The Big bang is a theory that asserts that about 13.7 billion years ago the universe emerged from an infinitely small, hot, and dense point that was called “singularity”, and began its expansion at once. Within three minutes after the explosion the first atoms were emerging. After this the production of light elements, like hydrogen, began to appear in vast numbers. All this took minutes, but it was another 380,000 years before the hydrogen gas cooled sufficiently to form molecules, and 200 million before the first stars coalesced. Everything was rushing outward from that initial burst. The big bang theory first began to take shape in 1927 when Georges Lemaitre publishes the theory.

V. Large Hadron Collider: “the big bang experiment”

The Large Hadron
(LHC), is the largest particle accelerator in the world, which has the aim of reproducing conditions similar to those produced during the Big Bang in order to study the origins of matter,and see how matter behaved a tiny fraction of a second after the Big Bang. Researchers have some ideas of what to expect, but also expect the unexpected. The large particle accelerator is located in a 27 kilometers-long underground tunnel, which straddles the border between France and Switzerland. Inside the tunnel, proton beams will be accelerated at speeds close to the speed of light and will be made to collide. This will allow conditions of extremely high-density energy to be reproduced, close to those of the initial instants of the universe, the Big Bang. The collider was first proposed more than 20 years ago, and the beam for more than ten years.

VI. Sources


Thursday, February 17, 2011

The Invention of the Internet

Introduction

The Internet is one of the most influential inventions off all time. It is also one of the most unique. There are no other inventions that can do the amount of things the Internet can do. Between giving us an unlimited amount of information to letting people thousands of miles away communicate in real time, and everything in-between; the Internet has a lot offer.

Invention

The Internet was originally a government invention. It was used in hopes to have a form of connection between government computers and in different parts of the country. Specifically the Pentagon and the SAC. One man did not invent the Internet. The government employed many men to invent it. Eventually, the ARPANET was made. This was made to be able to work from host-to-host. Although, the Internet could have been available for twenty years, it wasn’t released to 1991.


Influence on humanity

The Internet has influenced almost everyone. This is because it has something that is intriguing to everyone. There are countless websites offering almost anything the mind can think of. This is why teens average 31 hours a week online. This is a large contribution to the average of 52,357,293,525 hits per day. The top three sites contribute over 5 billion of those hits. Number one is the social networking site Facebook. The site has over half a billion users. Which is well over the number of people in the United States. Number two is the search engine Google. Then third is Youtube. A website used for sharing videos. Because of this site many people’s careers have started, such as Justine Beiber. Others use Youtube as their main source of income. The Internet also has significant power, much more then most recognize. For example, there is a group on the Internet called Anonymous. And they can and will do almost whatever they want. They are very opinionated and are incredibly skilled with computers. A perfect example of what they can do is when a video surfaced of a woman throwing puppies into a river. As I’m sure you can imagine, they were disgusted. Within 24 hours found her. They to proceeded to torment her and contacted local authorities. They have also done much more significant things. A few months ago, they put a worm virus in the Iran nuclear systems. A worm virus is a virus that will enter the computer, and duplicate itself, and then the duplicates will duplicate and so on. Making the virus very difficult to stop. Because of this it will take Iran two years to get back to where they were. The Internet has influenced humanity in incredible ways.



Review of Journal Article

In the journal article How the Internet Came to be, Vinton Cerf talks about the birth of ARPANET, the Internet, and how the Internet eventually took off. This article was incredibly helpful in finding information about the invention of the Internet.

Resources

How the Internet came to be http://www.webmastercourse.com/articles/internet/history/

The Internet

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet

The Discovery of DNA- Brooke Mastmeier

I. Introduction-
DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic directions that are used for the development of all living organisms. DNA consists of two long polymers, and the backbones of DNA that are made up of phosphate and sugar groups that are joined by ester bonds. The two long strands run in opposite directions which make them: anti-parallel. DNA was discovered, but wasn’t recognized as genetic material until a century later!
Figure 1:



II. Discovery- In 1953 two young scientists said that they found “the secret to life.” James Watson and Francis Crick had discovered DNA. The find led to biotechnology industry and the deciphering of the human genetic blueprint! The discovery didn’t come randomly, ten years prior Oswald Avery had suspected that DNA carried genetic information. Using X-ray diffraction, Franklin and Wilkins beamed X-rays through the structure of the molecule, and the X-ray bounced off of its component parts. After Watson and Crick saw the picture they discovered that DNA had two chains that were made up of nucleotides, and that it had formed a double helix. The discovery was announced in 1953, and they explained how DNA could replicate itself during cell division which enabled organisms to reproduce themselves. For there work they received the Nobel peace prize in 1962.
Figure 2:




III. Biography of Investigators-
Francis Crick-
Francis Crick was educated near London, he received a BS degree in physics at college. He became interested in Biology and wanted to focus on proteins and the effect of X-Rays had on them.

James Watson-
James Watson was born in Chicago and had gotten a scholarship to the University of Chicago. He received a degree in the field on zoology at Indiana University, there he studied the effect of X-rays on bacteria.

-When Crick and Watson met at the University of Cambridge, and they both had an interest in discovering a genes real structure. They had experimented with paste cardboard, they later figured out the DNA was composed of 2 double helical-configurations.

IV. Impact on the World- The discovery of DNA was the most significant discovery of the 20th century! This discovery was important and has had an impact on medicines and science. It has helped to identify genes that lead to the development of diseases also to producing pharmaceuticals. The discovery of DNA has even helped with things such as cloning, identifying victims, and even determining a person guilty or innocent in a crime. The analysis of genes has transformed the world!

V. Journal Article-
Kiss, J. Z. (2007). Francis Crick: Discoverer of the Genetic Code. The American Biology Teacher, 69(2), 120. Retrieved February 17, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5028563177
This Journal Article is an article that explains the biography of one of the discoverers: Francis Crick. It explains how Francis Crick received various awards for his discovery. It also explains that it was one of the greatest discoveries of the 20th century, also how he is a hero to the science world!

VI. References-

1. "Biography of Francis Crick & James Watson." Biography, Autobiography & Memoir resources at BiographyShelf.com.(n.d.) Web. 17 Feb. 2011.

2. "DNA." Wikipedia. (n.d.) Web. 16 Feb. 2011. .

3. "Evolution: Library: The Discovery of DNA's Structure." PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. (n.d.) Web. 17 Feb. 2011.
4. Kiss, J. Z. (2007). Francis Crick: Discoverer of the Genetic Code. The American Biology Teacher, 69(2), 120. Retrieved February 17, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5028563177

5. "The Importance of DNA." Rosalind Frankiln University. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2011.
Figure 1:
http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.biojobblog.com/uploads/image/dna_500.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.biojobblog.com/tags/dna/&usg=__B6o4S-65xfcmD7OhJOoiiJvIKE4=&h=325&w=500&sz=29&hl=en&start=0&sig2=B60rVwC0FhtVO05WlnsUSQ&zoom=1&tbnid=CRLQYP7d9d_TcM:&tbnh=114&tbnw=175&ei=wkpbTYC5AoP-8Aa306T6DA&prev=/images%3Fq%3DDNA%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26rlz%3D1T4ADSA_enUS349US351%26biw%3D1003%26bih%3D591%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=114&vpy=112&dur=813&hovh=181&hovw=279&tx=124&ty=85&oei=wkpbTYC5AoP-8Aa306T6DA&page=1&ndsp=17&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0

Figure 2:
http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://i202.photobucket.com/albums/aa144/Primate_bucket/Franklin.jpg&imgrefurl=http://scienceblogs.com/primatediaries/2009/07/today_in_history_rosalind_fran.php&usg=__Nv9TJnxZKecLHWdEcIf-3W8-N5s=&h=624&w=520&sz=45&hl=en&start=15&sig2=6NWkCaTVKSwqIBQAA_Yt6g&zoom=1&tbnid=0sjG1RjhazRmyM:&tbnh=139&tbnw=124&ei=sU9bTaDvF8Gatwetx43MCw&prev=/images%3Fq%3Ddiscovery%2Bof%2Bdna%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26rlz%3D1T4ADSA_enUS349US351%26biw%3D1003%26bih%3D591%26tbs%3Disch:10%2C266&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=126&vpy=250&dur=2328&hovh=246&hovw=205&tx=97&ty=133&oei=qU9bTdasC4P98AbQyfCGDQ&page=2&ndsp=15&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:15&biw=1003&bih=591

Wednesday, February 16, 2011

Carbonated Beverages by Sammy Bozza

I. Introduction
You add a little CO2 to some H20. One thing leads to another, and one of the most successful industries is born. “A soft drink (also referred to as soda, soda pop, pop, cold drink, carbonated beverage, tonic, coke, fizzy drink or mineral) is a non-alcoholic beverage typically containing water (often carbonated water) and a flavoring agent. Many of these beverages are sweetened by the addition of sugar or high-fructose corn syrup, or in the case of "diet" drinks, with a sugar substitute.” Some examples of a soft drink are coca-cola, sprite, and dr. pepper.
Figure 1.

II. Discovery
The history of soft drinks goes back to the mineral water found in natural springs. Bathing in natural springs has long been considered healthy, and was said to have “curative powers.” Scientists soon discovered carbon dioxide was the cause of the bubbles in natural mineral water. In 1767, Joseph Priestley invented the first drinkable manmade glass of carbonated water. However, carbonated beverages did not become popular until John Mathews invented his apparatus to make the carbonated water. John Mathews then mass-manufactured his apparatus and sold tem to soda fountain owners. Coca Cola came on the market in 1886 as a syrup mixed with carbonated water. “The invention of the cork in 1892 by William Painter, and the invention of glass-blown bottles by Michael J. Owens in 1899, led to mass-produced carbonated drinks that did not lose their carbonation.” In 1938, Cliquot Club ginger ale was the first drink to be carbonated in a can. Pepsi followed soon after with canned soda in 1948, and Dr. Pepper soon came after in 1955. Carbonated drinks were soon one top choices in beverages. In the 1950s, carbonated drinks were marketed for their abilities to aid in digestion, however it soon became equivalent to junk food. In 1972, Pepsi was the first company to use multi-packs of cans.


 III. Inventor
Joseph Priestley is said to be the father of the soda industry. Priestley was the first scientist to prove that oxygen was an important part to combustion. “Joseph Priestley also discovered hydrochloric acid, nitrous oxide (laughing gas), carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide.” In 1767 he invented the first drinkable glass of carbonated water. He explained how to make soda water by publishing a paper titled “Directions for Impregnating Water with Fixed Air (1772).” However he wrote so he did not risk any business exploitations. Joseph Priestley was also the founder of the eraser. On April 15, 1770, Joseph Priestley discovered that the Indians’ gum had the ability to rub out or erase lead pencil marks.

Figure 2.
IV. Impact on Humanity Today
Carbonated beverages today are seen everywhere you look. There are many different companies that make carbonated beverages. Some examples are Coke, Pepsi, Sprite, Dr.Pepper and Mug (root beer). Originally carbonated beverages were supposed to cure people from sickness; now it is killing people. Carbonated drinks contain many different ingredients that are dangerous to the body. Sodas have a very high amount of sodium, caffeine, and additives with absolutely no nutritional value. Carbonated beverages are also linked to health problems such as obesity, heart disease, tooth decay, and much more. Now that there is no going back, we need to be careful about the consumption of carbonated beverages. Every once in a while wont kill you… maybe just a little bitJ .
Figure 3.

V. Journal Article.This Article talks about the history of carbonated beverages and touches briefly on the inventor Joseph Priestley. It also has a section about how carbonated beverages affect us in a negative way. This site showed the same information as other sites that I visited, so I believe it is a trustworthy site.

VI. List of References
1. Whardon, Ella “The History of Carbonation” Retrieved February 16, 2011. <http://www.ehow.com/about_6311975_history-carbonation.html>
2. Rada, Jim “From Mineral Water to Coca-Cola. The History of Soda Pop and Carbonated Beverages” Retrieved February 16, 2011. <http://www.suite101.com/content/from-mineral-water-to-cocacola-a87250>
3. Bellis, Mary “Joseph Priestley” Retrieved February 16, 2011. <http://inventors.about.com/od/pstartinventors/a/JosephPriestley.htm>
4. Bellis, Mary “Introduction to Pop. The History of Soft Drinks” February 16, 2011. http://inventors.about.com/od/foodrelatedinventions/a/soft_drinks.htm

Assembly Line





Assembly Line
I. Introduction:

Assembly Line, -n.
A sequence of machines, tools, operations, workers, etc, in a factory, arranged so that at each stage a further process is carried out. The assembly line was first perfected between 1908 to 1915 by Henry Ford because of the need for a faster way t produce cars. This creation forever changed the way products were manufactured.

II. Discovery:

In the late 19th century most manufactured products were made individually by hand. A craftsman would build there part of the product and then join it together with the other pieces. Before the Industrial Revolution the world new did not commonly use the assembly line method, while it had been around for many years already. The Ford Assembly Line was developed after William "Pa" Klann visited a slaughter house in Chicago and saw what he called a "disassembly line", which was used to gut, skin, and butchered. He noticed that the same person removed the same part of the animal every time the animal was passed to him and then would pass it on to the next person. William then told Peter E. Martin, Head of Production for Ford about the idea of an assembly line, and the idea was passed along to Henry Ford. The process was then put to trial and error. After all of the problem had been worked out Ford's cars were able to be produced one every three minutes. This was so fast that the cars were only available in one color, black, because other paint wouldn't die fast enough. Because the assembly line could produce cars so fast, the price of them dropped greatly, with the average worker able to buy one with only about four months pay. Soon other companies began to use the assembly line to. Ford considered suing them for stealing his ideas but decide against it because he realized it would benefit industry greatly. Because of the assembly line, Ford was able to quickly spread to other countries, forcing other companies to switch to assembly lines in order to survive. Those that had not switched by 1930 disappeared. However, the assembly line did have some problems. Besides the boredom that comes with standing in the same spot all day doing the same thing over and over again, many workers had ear damage from the loud nosies of the factory and only had about 25 centimeters to move around. The assembly line was a fairly basic idea that has only grown in size sense. Today, most assembly line building is done by machines with humans only need to supervise.

III. Biography of the Discoverer:

Henry Ford was born July 30, 1863. He is most popular for developing the assembly line, which changed the ways of production worldwide. For most of his early life Ford worked on the family farm just outside of Detroit, Mi with his two brothers and two sisters. After his mothers death in 1876 Ford went to work in Detroit. He later returned to the farm in 1882 to help out his family. In 1888 Ford married Clara Ala Bryant and supported his family buy running a sawmill and farming. They had one child, Edsel Ford. in 1891 Ford started working for Edison Illuminating Company were he developed a self propelled vehicle called the "Ford Quadricycle". After many test drives, Ford began to improve his design. After many failed attempts, Ford finally was able to start his own car company. Ford died in from a Cerebral Hemorrhage in 1947 at the age of 83, leaving is grandson in charge of his company.

IV. Impact on the World:

The assembly line impacted the world in many ways. It helped to create more jobs and lower prices for automobiles, and ultimately everything. The assembly line forced all other major companies to switch to assembly lines to compete with the other companies that had already switched to assembly lines. In doing so this boosted the globe economy and might have even been a major starter for the Industrial Revolution. It also paved the way for many scientific advances, such as, the creation of basic robots and other, more elaborate machinery that has ultimately taken the place of most people.


V. Journal Review:

This article, from eyewitness history, tells how the assembly line impacted the world. It tells how all other major producers were forced to switch to assembly lines. This article also tells the story of how before the assembly line automobiles were just playthings for the rich. The article then goes on to describe
how the order of assembly was determined, with the smaller, lightweight products, in the far back half of the factory, and the heavier materials near the front.

Tuesday, February 15, 2011

Pasteurization by Sarah King


Introduction: Pasteurization is the process of heating a food, most often a liquid , for a definite length of time and then cooling it immediately. The process of pasteurization slows the growth of micro bacteria in food. Louis Pasteur originally developed the idea of pasteurization. The process of heating wine to preserve it longer has been documented in China from A.D. 1117 and in Japan since 1568. Commercial pasteurization began in Europe in the 1800s and in the United States in the 1900s.

Discovery: Louis Pasteur did much research with microbiology, and soon realized that by heating wine, he could further preserve it. Louis pasteurization process concluded that all fermentable liquid could be prevented from spoiling with specific heating treatments. His method was mainly implemented to save wine and beers from diseases by heating at 55 degrees. Louis proved that all germs came from germs, and by killing all of the germs in a product, it would prevent further germs from growing.

Biography of Investigator: Louis Pasteur was born in France on December 27, 1822. His family was very poor and he grew up in the small town of Arbois. Louis worked hard as a student and in 1847 earned his doctorate. He worked as a teacher’s assistant and continued his work on fermentation that he started in Strasbourg. By 1857, Louis Pasteur was world famous. In 1863, he became the dean of a new science facility at Lille University. In 1867, a laboratory was established for his discovery of the rabies vaccine. It was known as the Pasteur Institute and Louis was in charge of it until his death in 1895.

Impact on the World: As the process of pasteurization became even more and more common, Pasteur’s process was best associated with foods and milk. The impact the pasteurization had on modern society was huge. It made preserving food and liquids much easier and more affordable. Since food could be pasteurized and therefore preserved, families began to grow a surplus of food. Today, pasteurization is applied to a huge list of food, including eggs, almonds, pickles, fish, cornbread, maple syrup, dairy products and many others. The most widespread use of pasteurization today is still in milk and dairy products. The effects of pasteurization greatly influenced milk production. It reduced the agents that caused diseases and made it go sour. Overall, pasteurization was a great innovation for today’s modern society: it allowed foods and liquids to be safely stored without the risk of disease.

Review of Journal Article:

http://aem.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/53/7/1433

In this article, it discusses how cow’s milk that has the bacteria Listeria monocytogenes, a common food borne bacteria was heated, and then quickly cooled. The results of this indicated that regardless of the heat applied, Listeria monocytogenes were still found. The heat that was applied was the minimum heat that the Food and Drug Administration requires for a food to be pasteurized. This shows that the bacteria L. monocytogenes can survive the minimum temperature that the FDA requires for pasteurizing milk. Therefore, the FDA should raise the minimum temperature to ensure the safety of pasteurized milk.

Sources:

http://aem.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/53/7/1433

http://campus.udayton.edu/~hst-102/Snyder.HTM

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pasteurization

http://www.zephyrus.co.uk/louispasteur.html

Monday, February 14, 2011

Turning Water into the Fuel- Jenny Riebesell

Introduction:
For years people have been trying to find other resources for fuel, mainly because we have a limited supply of appropriate materials for fossil fuel, and the way we live now fuel is at an extreme;y high demand. In 2007 an inventor named John Kanzius was hoping to make a machine to cure cancer using radio waves, however while testing this he discovered something he wasn't looking for; he made saltwater catch fire.

Discovery:
While working to find a cure for cancer, inventor, John Kanzius discovered something that has and will shock many, water on fire. Although the saltwater isn't exactly burning, the radio frequencies act to weaken the bonds between the elements that make up salt water, releasing the hydrogen. Once ignited, the hydrogen will burn as long as it is exposed to the frequencies.When first discovered in winter 2007 people debated if water could really burn, and if so what use would come out of it.They also questioned if radio generator machine, which was intentionally used to create radio waves to cure cancer cells, could create more energy then it used up. Since John Kanzius was not looking for an energy resourse he was unsure the answers. However, what both John Kanzius and everyone else that questioned this did know was that this could be the spark of eventually a new cheaper way to create fuel.
 
Biography on Investigator:
John Kanzius was an engineer, and always working to find new discoveries. He was inspired to create this radio generator machine to cure cancer after being diagnosed with luekemia himself. When he came across the discovery of saltwater burning, despite all the media that wanted to be involved, he continued to work for the goal he had in mind, a cure for cancer, and ignore, what was in his mind, a minor discovery. However the more he looked into this he thought that if he could go off this small idea to eventually create a new resource for fuel, he figured he would be helping people either way. Unfortunately John Kanzius died February 18, 2009, at age 64 to pneumonia. Although he passed away his "small discovery" could hopefully be the start to save what many people have worried about for year, running out of fuel.

Impact on the World:
Although we have not put this discovery in action yet, the idea of turning in water into fuel, could save the earth. Now a days everyone is looking for ways to be fuel efficient, and find new resources for fuel, such as vegetable oil. If this could form into more then just an idea it could be the biggest and most help discovery since the invention of fuel itself. The effects are further shown in this video. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4OklIm5a1Lc

Journal Article:
http://www.naturalnews.com/030960_renewable_energy_water.html
In this article it further explains the benefits of using water for energy, and how it could work. Hydrogen is what is needed to make efficient fuel, the machine that John Kanzius created breaks down the bonds that are in salt water, releasing hydrogen. If in the future they are able to further this discovery and find away to do this enable to power a car, or heat a home it could be the biggest contribution to the world of fuel that may ever happened.

Bibliography:
http://www.naturalnews.com/030960_renewable_energy_water.html
http://www.popsci.com/scitech/article/2007-11/turning-water-fuel
http://www.alternet.org/water/79957/ 

Sunday, February 13, 2011

The Human Genome Project -- Blake Werab

I. Introduction
The Human Genome Project is one of the most critical and recent discoveries of this generation. The human genome of each person is different, besides identical twins like myself, and it is the map of all our genes and DNA which makes us, us. So basically the goal of this project is to find the sequence of base pairs that make up an individual's DNA and map the genes of the human genome. It is like our karyotyping exercise we did which is the human genome. The human consists of about 3 billion DNA chemical base pairs or letters (T,A,C,G). In this project, scientist would look at the base pairs and see if they could come up with the correct or accurate genome for that individual.
Figure 1:



II. Discovery
At first, this project was supposed to be run by James D. Watson. Watson then got in an arguement with his boss and was forced to resign. After this the project was given to one of the famous geneticists Francis Collins. Francis Collins studied at Yale University and studied the human genome. The United States Deparment of Energy began the Human Genome project in about 1990 and this was expected to take about 15 years. With a great team by his side, Collins had a rough draft by 2000 and was saving the department money. The human genome project is still continually being added onto today and the discovery of this project was and is a major breakthrough in genetics and can explain genetic reasons for unknown and rare disorders.
Figure 2:


III. Biography of Founder
Francis Collins was born on April 14th, 1950 on a small farm in Virginia. He was home-schooled until about the 7th grade and he later attended Robert E. Lee High School. He is the youngest of his four siblings, all being boys, one being Dr. Fletcher Collins. Collins had no interest in biology and moved on to recieve a Ph.D. in physical chemistry at Yale University in 1974. He found his love of DNA and RNA (Nucleic Acids) in a biochemistry class during his studies. Collins is also well-known for what he calls "positional cloning". Positional cloning is like gene hunting or looking for genes that are diseased without knowing what the abnormalities might be. Collins' team found a new approach towards genes that are the cause of cystic fibrosis, Huntington's disease, and neurofibromatosis. In 1993 he accepted an invite to become the leader of the Human Genome Project. A working draft of the human genome was made in 2000 and Collins was very happy to the fact it was ahead of schedule and under the budget line. Collins believes that this project can help find the cures to killer diseases such as heart disease, and Type 2 diabetes.
Figure 3:





IV. Impact on World/Humanity
The Human Genome Project basically made a map of all the base pairs in one individual's DNA. This is very critical in seeing if this person has a disorder or disfunction and what I disagree with, changing these genes to create the "perfect baby". Now I am not saying if my child, god for bid, had a deadly disorder that they can cure then I would have them cure it in a heartbeat, but if it were to just change the babies eye color then I disagree with it. The Human Genome Project is one of the most interesting topics because the genome maps out all of the genes of a human being and to find out this information is unbelievable. Also, to know all of the base pairs of your own unique DNA (besides identical twins) is pretty cool and it is a very interesting and new discovery.


V. Journal Article Review
This journal article, written by Virginia Miller, is a great example on how people can be helped by the discovery of the Human Genome Project. It gives examples of peoples everyday lives and shows how this project will help not only the patient, but also the patient's family. It also describes how this project can help financially with the healthcare of the patient's family and how it can even find a cure for the patient's disease, in some cases. This project is also good for the families to find out or test to see if their upcoming baby may have a deadly disorder that can only be cured in the prenatal enviorment. Then they can cure this disoreder and have a hopefully healthy baby. If the parents use this project to see what color eyes their baby will have, then I disagree because their eye color is not a matter of life and death and they can wait 9 months.



VI. Videos


VII. References
5)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Collins= For biography of Francis Collins