Thursday, December 16, 2010

The Television by Nico Moschetto

I. Introduction

The television has a great variety of opportunities for the average family, like being informed by the latest news, instantly, or having a favorite entertaining program, or in some cases weight gain (or loss if you count excercise shows). it is also famous for its nickname 'The Idiot Box" by many mindless viewers who live their life by the T.V. This in many cases causes brain melting, overheating, or complete loss under extreme circumstances. In all seriousness, the T.V. has been around since the early 1900s and has gotten the world hooked on some of their favorite tv shows, sports, news, and all kinds of other things since its discovery. the theory had been played with years before, but nobody quite perfected so that it could be sold in stores until about 1948 when the old fashoned "bunny ears" T.V. antennae was invented by Louis Parker.

Bush television receiver, type TV22, c 1950.
figure 1

II. Discovery

No one person discovered the television itself. The idea of having moving pictures on a screen was first played with in 1884 when German scientist Paul Nipkow developed a rotating disk technology to transmit pictures over wire. It wasnt until 1953 when the first color T.V. was invented and approved by the FCC to be sold in stores. This color T.V. was first designed by a company by the name of RCA. RCA also released a cable television in the 1940s but it would have been commonly known then as the community antennae television or CATV. With the T.V. you would always expect it to come with a remote control right? wrong. until 1956, if you had a T.V. you had to change the channel in a way we now call "the old fashoned way" by using the dial on the T.V. Come to think of it, now a days, I can't even find the channel flipper on the new T.V.s anyway! Hope i never lose the remote. Children's programming emerged in the 40s but never started to pick up until the 50s when the greatly remembered shows like "Buffalo Bob" Simth's Howdy Doody time showed up and stole the old era children's T.V. spot. Currently, we now have very high technological televisions in our home and just recently, all networking was switched to digital broadcasting, which meant that all old fashoned antennae T.V.'s will no longer work. We now have High Definition television and special movie channels where you can rent the movie right on your T.V. screen through an easy selection process and a small fee. The T.V. has blown up in the face of not only the American people, but people across the world as well. Presently, there are very few Americans or Europeans without a television set in their home.
 
figure 2

III. Successes in the World of Television

There were many contributors to the invention of the television, but no one person has gotten credit for the invention. Although, many broadcasting networks have made quite a living of the invention of the television, for example, Robert Iger, the CEO of The Walt Disney Company which owns ABC made $57 million dollars so far as CEO of the company. There are many other people involved in the world of T.V. as we've seen many fads in the era of popular television, like the japenese Animae series we have all seen since the 90s like Pokemon and other smaller T.V. shows of the same category. The point is, if your involved in the world of T.V. odds are your in good shape as long as the ideas are fresh and the people are satisfied.

IV. Impact on the World

The impact that T.V. has had on the world has been a ginormous one. since it got its start in the 50s it has blossomed into one of the household essentials of the modern family. Cable television companies have thrived off our need for a greater thrill, laugh, or cry, while watching this box of magic throw pictures on the screen for more than half a century. The T.V. is an idea that has been improved many times throughout history and I don't see the innovation stopping any time soon.

V. Journal Article Review

 "History of Television" was a great article to read. It explained a lot of the history in chronological order and made things clear to understand. The article was very informative for even a simple minded person like me. Overall i enjoyed this atricle the most because of its history of the television networks was enjoyable. This was an extremely helpful article in my project.

VI. Youtube video
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y6O_I9l1kok

Sources

http://inventors.about.com/od/tstartinventions/a/Television.htm

http://inventors.about.com/od/kidactivities/a/children_tv.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Iger

http://www.nyu.edu/classes/stephens/History%20of%20Television%20page.htm

Monday, December 13, 2010

The Bicycle by Kelby Fruecht



I. There are many things that we use almost every day that we never seem to think about. Many of these things are very useful in our lives. One invention that I believe is most used and looked over is the bicycle. Bicycles are used by countless groups of people and things like BMX, Pro Cycling, X-games, recreation, and even as a means of transportation.

II. The documents and creation of the 1st bicycle was in Germany in 1817. They called it a Draisine. The Draisine was very different from the bike we know today. It had no pedals and you move it by pushing your feet on the ground. It was given many names like strider or velocipede, but as the design of the idea changed over the years, the word bicycle seemed to have stick there on. Surprisingly the word “bicycle” was devised by the French 43 years later in the 1860’s.


Between 1820 and 1860, there were many developments being made to make human-powered machines. The goal was to make transportation more efficient and practical. The idea of balancing on two wheels was dismissed and so all the designs had either 3 or 4 wheels. The problem with these designs was that they were extremely heavy and most of them proved to be less efficient than even walking!


In 1870, the Frenchman Eugene Meyer was credited for inventing the high bicycle. The improvements enabled the rider capable of higher speeds based on how long your legs were.





Soon after, the bicycle that we know and recognize today was invented. The interesting thing was that it was actually called a “safety bike” because in the 1880’s and 90’s, the safety bike changed the way bikes would be forever. Before the creation of the safety bike, the bicycle was considered to be a recreational thing for men because the previous configurations and designs of the bicycle were so dangerous that most women and kids didn’t ride bicycles. Once the traditional design of the bicycle was invented, everyone started riding bikes and it became a huge sensation around the world.

III. The inventor of the first successful traditional (safety) bicycle was John Kemp Starley. He was born in 1854 and was an English inventor who industrialized the bike and became know as the creator of the modern bicycle. He grew up being the son of a gardener. In 1872, he moved out of the house to work with his uncle building Ariel cycles. He started his own company as a partnership with a cycling enthusiast William Sutton, the company was named Starley & Sutton Co. After making kids tricycles for a year or two, the struck gold when they made the safety bike for all ages in 1889.

They became the first bicycling company in the world to mass produce and export bikes. After much success, their company became know as the Rover Cycling Company. Then suddenly in 1901, John Starley passed away, leaving the company with William Sutton. Interestingly enough, as the years went by in the 19th century and the world started to go into the automobile era, the Rover company switched from doing bikes to motorcycles and cars. If you notice how the name Rover rings a bell? Well, this company that made the first ever modern bike, is the same exact company as Land Rover today.

IV. The creation of the bicycle has had a tremendous impact on the world. It opened the way for the later invention of the motorcycle and changed the way many people live, especially in countries where there is no gas or where the gas is too expensive, it has given people a means of transportation for just about anybody. Also, the bicycle has paved the way not only for transportation, but for fitness too. The bicycle has such a great impact on the world and it continues to this day.

V. The article titled “Rover – How it Began” was a well written synapsis of John Starley’s rise to making the Rover Cycling company. It explained how he rose to the top and became the number one bicycle company during the early 1900’s.

References:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_bicycle

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Kemp_Starley

http://www.rover.org.nz/pages/histpic/hind1.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rover_Company


Sunday, December 12, 2010

The Invention of the Electric Guitar By Jay Jenkins

Introduction:

Today we are so focused on our IPods and burned CD’s but we rarely take a minute to recognize the roots of these sounds. For the most part a lot of what music is happens to come from the electric guitar. This breakthrough of an invention came in 1932 and was invented by George Beauchamp.

Discovery:

The electric guitar was first manufactured in the 1930’s. The earliest electric guitars had small sound holes on them. These types of guitars are still quite popular but not as popular as the new models. There are many types of electric guitars such as Solid Body, String-Through Body, Solid-Acoustic, Semi-Acoustic, Chambered, Electric Acoustic, Seven string, Eight and nine string, Ten string, Twelve string, 3rd bridge and double neck guitar. All these types of electric guitars are very different from acoustic guitars. Acoustic guitars, which have hallow bodies are used another way. Both acoustic and electric guitars convert their sound by just simply playing the strings but the electric guitar needs to be hooked up with special audible equipment like guitar amplifiers oppose to the or it would not be loud enough to perform with. Acoustic may be more natural playing but electric guitars in most cases are more upbeat and better suited for songs in the category of rock, jazz and the classics.

Biography:

There are many people who had the idea of constructing inventions such as the electric guitar but the man who made the first successful instrument of this sort was George Beauchamp. Beauchamp was born on March 18, 1899. He was born and raised in Coleman County, Texas and grew up playing the violin and the lap steel guitar. As he got older these instruments inspired him to experiment with the idea of creating instruments. Beauchamp tried to invent the electric lap steel guitar and then went on to create the electric violin and eventually the first successful electric guitar. Beauchamp was involved with music nearly all his life until he died of a fatal heart attack on March 30, 1941. He was a brilliant inventor of musical instruments and gave a gift to the musical world through is creation of the electric guitar.

Electric guitar


Impact On World/Humanity:

 The Electric Guitar has without a doubt changed the world for the better. It has impacted the way we listen to music. It is a great addition to most songs we hear. Music inspires us and the electric guitar creates a sound that gets us out of our seats, pumps people up and makes us want to go out and do something with our lives. The electric guitar made the way for music like Rock, Jazz and many others. These types of music have influence lives everywhere around the world. Famous musicians like Jimi Hendrix would have never had gotten the chance to change the world with their music if not for the electric guitar. It is safe to say that the electric guitar has left a mark on the world today.

Journal Article:

In the Journal Article, “A Brief History of the Electric Guitar”, it describes all the types of electric guitars and what makes them different and how they are built. It says how popular the solid body electric guitar type is compared to others. Rollin’s also explains how the breakthrough of the electric guitar jumpstarted bug bands in the 30’s and 40’s.

Bellis, Mary “History of the Accoustic Guitar and Electric Guitar” Dec. 2010
<http: a="" gstartinventions="" guitar.htm="" inventors.about.com="">

Rollins, Gary “A Brief History of the Electric Guitar” Jan. 2010
<http: ?a-brief-history-of-the-electric-guitar&id="439356" ezinearticles.com>

Lollar, Rick “History of the Electric Guitar” Feb. 2005
<http: frontier="" hfair="" index.htm="" http://www.ricklollar.com/="">

Brain, Marshall “How Electric Guitars Work” Jul. 2002
<http: electric-guitar.htm="" entertainment.howstuffworks.com="">

“Can you hear me now?”

Cell Phones, By Sarah King

russian-doll-cellph-phone-evolution_1.jpg

Introduction:

The cell phone originally was introduced in the 1970’s, and they were about the size of a car battery. Dr. Martin Cooper from Motorola was the first person to show a mobile phone. Motorola introduced the first commercially available mobile cell phone in 1973. By 1990, 12.4 million people worldwide had cell phones.

Discovery:

The first call placed from a cell phone was from a car in St. Louis, Missouri on June 17, 1946. However, this system was too impractical from what we consider a mobile handset today. The equipment weighed 80 pounds and the service cost around $337.33 today.

The first commercially automated cell phone service, 1G, or first generation, was launched in Japan, and within five years grew to a nationwide service. In 1991 Finland introduced the first “modern” network technology, on digital 2G, or second generation. In 2001 the first commercial launch of 3G, or third generation was again in Japan.

Today, cell phones are quickly advancing to 4G, or fourth generation. In December, 2009, Sprint began advertising the first 4G cell phone. Future advancements for the mobile phone are close on the horizon, as prototypes are being built and tested daily.

transperent-design.jpg

Investigator:

Martin Cooper was born December 26, 1928. After World War II, he left the Navy and in 1954 was hired by Motorola to work on their mobile communications project. On April 3, 1973, Martin Cooper made the first cell phone call in public. This phone connected Cooper to the base station on the roof of the Burlington House across the street from a hotel where Cooper was supposed to later hold a press conference. Reporters and passer-bys watched as Cooper dialed, help the phone to his ear, and spoke to Dr. Joel S. Engel. After demonstrating the cell phone prototype, Cooper allowed some reporters to call anyone they wanted to show how well the cell phone could work.

Impact:

Cell phones have become a norm in today’s society. When the cell phone as first introduced, it was simply a way to make calls on the go an communicate between people. Today, it has become a way to surf the net, check emails, play games with friends across the globe, and to create and identity for yourself, to name a few functions. Users can choose a background, a ringtone, and personalize voicemails and contact pictures. Cell phones can help to make everyday lives easier by making things such as emails and business information accessible on the go.

But with all the pluses, are of course negatives. Because cell phones have become part of us, many people don’t think twice about using cell phones while driving, increasing the numbers of fatal accidents. Cell phone users need to be more cognicent of where cell phones are used. Noise pollution is also an issue. In 2003, cell phone conversations totaled almost 830 billion minutes. Today, certain places are banning cell phones and asking people to silence their cell phones.

Review of Journal Article:

In the journal article “Cell phone Induced Failures of Visual Attention During Stimulated driving, it examines the results of how talking on a cell phone affects simulated driving. The findings of the study are that using a mobile phone while driving distracts the driver from fully being able to focus on the road, and drivers who used cell phones were more likely to look directly at a road sign or such and not remember it later.

Bibliography:

Javadi, K. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.askkia.com/articles/societal-impact-of-wireless-technology-on-society.html

(n.d.). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_phone

(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.soc.hawaii.edu/leon/409as2006/wong/visualattention.pdf

Nash, J., & , Initials. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.suite101.com/content/cell-phone-history-a47053

DNA Testing--David Prue





DNA Testing

I. Intro

DNA testing is a technique used by scientists to identify individuals by their respective DNA profiles. DNA profiles are sets of numbers that reflect a person's DNA makeup, which can also be used as the person's identifier. Although 99.9% of human DNA is the same in every person, enough of the DNA is different to distinguish one individual from another. Alec Jeffreys discovered it in the 1980’s. Since then criminal investigation has been revolutionized.

II. Discovery

On September 10, 1984 Jeffreys made a monumental discovery. He noticed the difference between DNA. He first tested his technique on a double-murder case. Because of DNA testing Colin Pitchfork was convicted of the murder. Without this method another man would have been incorrectly persecuted. Since then DNA testing has taken place in numerous cases, leaving no doubt who is innocent and who is guilty.

III. Biography of Inventor

Alec Jeffreys was a scientist from the start. He was born on January 9th, 1950 in Oxford, England. When he was eight years old, his father gave him a small chemistry kit. When he got a little older, his father gave him a telescope. Finally, when he turned twelve, his gave him a dissecting kit. He actually brought home a dead cat and dissected it. When Jeffreys got older he followed his passion of science and got a degree in biochemistry. It was because of his studies that he discovered DNA profiling.

IV. Impact on World/ Humanity

DNA testing has had a huge impact on crime fighting and criminal justice. DNA testing has been the silver bullet for crime fighting. All that is need is a fingerprint, a single strand of hair, or even a drop blood. Because of this, narrowing down suspects is very simple. This way, innocent people are not accused and the criminals can be brought to justice.


V. Journal Article Review

This article was incredibly helpful in finding information. It helped me truly understand what DNA testing is all about. It showed the good and bad sides of it. It tackled the fact that it was incredibly useful for solving crimes and asked the question of whether or not it was an invasion of privacy.

VI. Videos

This video is Alec Jeffreys talking about DNA testing. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0jmB1SuK-Vo

Joseph Neuberger comments on proposal for mandatory DNA sampling of those individuals charged with a criminal offence in the City of Toronto. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wBstIzITiVs

VII References

Science hall of fame http://www.invent.org/hall_of_fame/235.html

Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alec_Jeffreys; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA_profiling

Harlan, Leigh M. (2004) When Privacy Fails: Invoking a Property Paradigm to Mandate the Destruction of DNA Samples. Duke Law Journal, Vol. 54

Youtube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wBstIzITiVs; http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wBstIzITiVs

Rainbow- Lisa Dunleavy


I. Introduction

Every time it rains, I find myself looking at the sky in search of a rainbow. It's amazing to see something so wonderful and beautiful and to realize that it's merely an optical illusion! Science explains the beauty and magic of rainbows in a simple way. There are two components that are necessary for a rainbow to occur, sunlight and water.

II. Refraction

The first step in understanding a rainbow is refraction, the "bending" of light. Light bends because it travels at different speeds when it is in different mediums. So when it goes from one medium to another, the change in speeds causes the light to change direction. To help understand this, the cart example from How Rainbows Work might help. If you are pushing a shopping cart down the street, the road being one medium, and you go at a constant speed, if the right side of the shopping cart hits grass, that side will slow down while the other side on the pavement will still go at the original speed. The cart travels at different speeds for different mediums (pavement to grass) and when it does, the cart turns to the right.

Image 1- cart example

This is the same way with light as in goes through a glass prism. One side of the light waves hits the prism first and is slowed down, this makes the light bend at the collision of the air and the glass prism. Some of the light does reflect off of the glass prism, but most of it goes through it. Then, as the light goes out of the prism, one side of the light speeds up quicker than the other causing the light to bend again.

III. Dispersion

The light not only goes through refraction, but dispersion as well when it goes through the glass prism. Before we talk about dispersion, it is important to know that different colors have different frequencies. When different colors go through matter, they travel at different speeds. Dispersion happens because slow-moving colors when they hit the glass prism bend sharply, where as fast-moving colors don't bend as sharply. This creates the dispersion of colors, the colors are separated by their speed. If the light bends them twice like in a prism, it is easier to see the dispersion of the colors. Rain water disperses the colors the same way as the glass prism.

Image 2- light refraction and dispersion
that takes place with a glass prism.


IV. Rainbows in Nature
Rainbows in nature go through a similar process as the glass prism. When many rain drops are together and the sun hits them a low angle, it creates a
rainbow (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and purple). When the sunlight from the air passes into a rain drop, just like in the glass prism, the
different colors slow to different speeds (determined by their frequency). These different colors then bend at different degrees (violet, the closest to the
ground bends at the sharpest degree). Some of the light is passed through the rain drop back into the air and the rest of the light is reflected backwards.
So every raindrop disperses this white light (from the sun) into the colors of the rainbow. There are different color bands because each raindrop from
the group of raindrops that were reflecting the suns light, reflect one color. This means that each color that we see is coming from a raindrop and every
raindrop is reflecting one color.

Image 3- The process a raindrop goes through when
it is hit by sunlight to create a rainbow

The different heights of the raindrops determine what color will be reflected and that will be seen by the observer. The angle that the raindrop is reflected down to your eye determines the color that you will see.

V. Cool facts about rainbows

- Next time you are looking at a rainbow, look where the sun is. Have you ever noticed that the sun is in the opposite direction of the rainbow (behind you if you are looking at a rainbow) and that the raindrops are falling in the direction of the rainbow.
- Did you know that two people can never look at the same rainbow? (excluding a picture) Actually, each eye sees a different rainbow than the other. This is due to the fact that a rainbow is a, "distribution of colors with reference to a definite point...," Humphreys.
- How far away a rainbow is can be determined by the distance of the raindrops, the closest and the furthest raindrop.

VII. Journal Article Review: Metamagnetics with rainbow colors
This journal article talks about the mathematics involved in finding the width of the bands of the rainbow and the atoms that make up a rainbow. It talks about
the wave lengths and how it corresponds to the width of the bands of the rainbow. It shows graphs on the amount of light that is reflected compared to the
amount of light that just passes through the rain drops in comparison to the wave length. Lastly, it talks about the importance of magnetics and geometry in
understanding the details of the formation of a rainbow.
VIII. References

About Rainbows. (n.d.). NCAR Education & Outreach Homepage. Retrieved December 12, 2010, from http://eo.ucar.edu/rainbows/
Cai, W., Chettiar, U., Yuan, H., Silva, V. d., Kildishev, A., Drachev, V., et al. (2007). Metamagnetics with rainbow colors. Birck Nanotechnology Center, 11.
Harris, T. (n.d.). HowStuffWorks "How Rainbows Work". Howstuffworks "Science". Retrieved December 12, 2010, from http://science.howstuffworks.com/nature/climate-weather/storms/rainbow1.htm
Kansas Tornado Chasers WHY PAGE. (n.d.). New Page 1. Retrieved December 12, 2010, from http://www.tornadochaser.com/to

XI. Images

Image 1, 2, 3:
http://science.howstuffworks.com/nature/climate-weather/storms/rainbow1.htm


Jenny Riebesell's GPS Blog

The GPS:
I. Introduction:
The GPS, or global positioning system is a satellite navigational system, mainly designed for navigation. Although the GPS seems like a generally new invention, the global positioning system was first a prototype in 1972, designed to advance the US Air Force, using a ground base satellite.  However the first satellite launched for this experiment wasn’t until 1978. The GPS is looked at as an invention by the Department of Defense, however the idea for the global positioning system came Dr. Ivan Getting.
                                     
II. Discovery:
A GPS receiver calculates its position by precisely timing the signals sent by GPS satellites high above the Earth. Each satellite continually transmits messages that include the time the message was transmitted, the orbital information, and
The general system health and rough orbits of all GPS satellites. The receiver uses the messages it receives to determine the time of each message and computes the distance to each satellite. Three satellites might seem enough to solve for position because space has three dimensions. However, even a very small clock error multiplied by the speed of light results in a large positional error. Therefore receivers use four or more satellites to solve for the receiver's location and time. The satellite clock, used for the GPS time relation is understood through very complex calculations, including position, time, and which satellite the signal is picked up by due to distance from the GPS. Several different extremely complex calculations work together to navigate the GPS in relation of the satellite above. On of the less complex calculations is the one below explain how to calculate the distance from each different satellite to one GPS.

III. Biography of Investigator:
Dr. Ivan Getting was born in 1912 in New York City. He attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology as an Edison Scholar, receiving his Bachelor of Science in 1933. In 1960, his proposed technique was among the most advanced forms of navigational technology in the world, and its concepts were crucial stepping-stones in the development of the Global Positioning System or GPS. Since this invention was primarily designed for the Air Force, after Dr. Ivan Getting’s death in 2003, he was elected into the Air Force Space and Missile Pioneers Hall of Fame at Peterson Air Force Base in Colorado Springs. This was one among his many awards and recognitions he received through out his life span, including National Inventors Hall of Fame in 2004.
                                                   

IV. Impact on World/ Humanity:
GPS is used for business purposes for many different reasons.  It has helped our business world become more successful.  Many GPS products are being used by businesses and government agencies to track their vehicle locations using wireless communications. Some GPS receivers have been integrated into radios and cell phones. GPS are just as big a part of land navigation as they are sea and air navigation. Many pilots are turning to GPS as a supplemental navigation aid for their aircraft. GPS is being used to help parents find and keep track of their children and is being installed as a location device in cars and in cell phones to assist people in mapping and directions. Police officers also benefit from GPS technology as an aid to locate and keep track of dangerous criminals, helping to guard against escaped or missing dangerous offenders.



V.  Journal Article:
In the Journal Article, GPS-Based Information System for Vehicles it helps further explain the idea of the GPS. The global positioning system is explained as an electronic tour guide in terms of cars, however through learning all the extreme math and science that goes into this, behind this tour guide is so much more. It is a highly compact machine with multifarious calculations all based on four major satellites to help further the advancement of navigation for society.
                                             
                                          
VI. Bibliography:
1. Bellis, Mary. "History of the Global Positioning System or GPS." Inventors. Web. 12 Dec. 2010. <http://inventors.about.com/od/gstartinventions/a/gps.htm>.
2. "Details of the GPS Position Calculation." Penn State - Information Technology Services - Courses Server. Web. 12 Dec. 2010. <https://www.courses.psu.edu/aersp/aersp055_r81/satellites/gps_details.html>.
3. "Dr. Ivan Getting." Our History: Dr. Ivan Getting. 7 Mar. 2001. Web. 12 Dec. 2010. <http://www.aero.org/corporation/getting.html>.
4. Schaphorst, Richard A. "GPS-based Information System for Vehicle." Google. 16 Jan. 1998. Web. 12 Dec. 2010. <http://www.google.com/patents?hl=en&lr=&vid=USPAT5767795&id=y2IlAAAAEBAJ&oi=fnd&dq=invention of gps&printsec=abstract#v=onepage&q=invention of gps&f=false>.


The Discovery of the Cell By: Blake Werab

I. Introduction

The cell is the major component to a human which consists of trillions of cells. The cell cannot be seen by the human eye which means we can only see cells through a microscope. The cell is built up of many parts including: a membrane, nucleus, cytoskeleton, mitochondrians, etc. All of these things are called organelles which carry on specific functions to keep the cell alive. Without these organelles cells would not be alive which means neither would humans. In this project I will tell you who founded the cell and how and how it affected today's life.
Figure 1:


II. Discovery
The cell was discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665 while he was looking at alot of different organisms in his microscope, one being a piece of cork. Hooke noticed something odd of this piece of cork and it was that there were tiny empty spaces that looked like the cells in a monastery which is where he got the trem "cell". He then published this discovery in his famous book Micrographia. Later on, scientist started to compare differences of cells which are two classes: eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells. The difference is that eukaryotic cells have a membrane-bound nucleus while prokayotic cells do not. This discovery by Robert Hooke led to many more interesting findings of the things called "cells".
Figure 2:
(cork cells)


III. Biography of the Founder
The cell was founded in 1665 by a man named Robert Hooke who was at the time studying the subjects of astronomy, biology, and physics at Oxford. Before this time, little Robert Hooke was a boy with a pretty bad childhood. Robert was boorn on July 18, 1635. His family includes his father John, his mother Cicely, his older sister Katherine, and finally his older brother John. Robert was a child of very bad health and his parents suspected he would not make it through childhood. And to add onto the bad luck, Robert's father died when he was 13 years old. Shortly after his father death, Robert was influenced in painting by John Hoskyns. He followed John H. and copied many of his fantastic paintings. Shortly later, he was then sent to London to be an apprentince of the famous painter Sir Peter Lely. In London, Robert found out that the smell of the oil pants agrivated his headaches and that is why he gave up on painting. During his studies at Oxford, Robert was influenced by a man named John Wilkins who was a scientist/politician. Thanks to the help of John W., Robert became an assistant of Dr. Thomas Willis in which Robert had to prepare the chemicals for him. Dr. Willis later introduced Robert to another famous scientist, Robert Boyle who is famous for Boyle's Law. In 1665, Robert Hooke published his very well-known book Micrographia. In his study of astronomy, in 1664 he discovered the rotation of Jupiter by looking at it through a telescope as a spot on Jupiter moved east to west in a matter of two hours. He then published this in the Micrographia. In this book, Hooke describes all of his organism findings includind when he first found cells in a piece of a cork and he wrote and drew about this and his many others. He later died on March 3, 1703.
Figure 3:



IV. Impact on World/Humanity
The discovery made by Robert Hooke opened up many doors to scientific discoveries in today's life. Scientists would observe many different organisms and they would find differences in these organisms and put them in a specific class. The two main classes of cells are eukaryotic or prokaryotic. Like I said above eukaryotic cells have a membrane-bound nucleus while prokayotic cells do not. Two examples of doors opening are of Theodor Schwann and Matthias Jakob Schleiden. Schwann and Schleiden looked deeper into the differences of cells in different organisms. Schwann observed the animal cell and how it had different cell organelles and structure of other organisms. Schleiden observed the cells of plants and how the have cell walls and different organelles of other organisms. These are just two examples of the many that were opened by Hooke. It's amazing how a little peek at a piece of cork can evolutionize our knowledge of our own structure and of other organisms.


V. Journal Article Review
This article was a very incisive and helpful article of Robert Hooke and his life. I found it extremely helpful when I was writing on Hooke's early life, and it even had the most specific details. At one point it got off a little to specific but in the end it made the big picture pretty clear. Without this article, my biography of Hooke would have been alot shorter and alot less in quality.


VI. Video: The Cell
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hmwvj9X4GNY

VII. References:
1) Chico, Tita (2006). "Minute Particulars: Microscopy and Eighteenth-Century Narrative". University of Manitoba. Copyright (2006).

2) Tan Drake, Ellen. "Restless Genius: Robert Hooke and His Earthly Thoughts".
Oxford University Press. Copyright (1996).

3) "Robert Hooke." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 12 Dec. 2010 http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/271280/Robert-Hooke.

4) "Robert Hooke and His Microscope" http://roberthooke.com/robert_hooke_biography_001.htm (2002).









Aerosol Spray by Sammy Bozza

I.                   Introduction

 It doesn’t matter if they destroy the ozone layer; as long as your house smells nice, that’s all that counts. You see them used all the time. Aerosol spray cans have the ability to make things smell better, put a nice coat of paint on the wall etc. Aerosol spray is a type of dispensing system, which creates a mist of liquid particles. This can be used with either with a bottle or can that contains a liquid under pressure. When the container’s valve is opened, the liquid is forced out of a small hole and emerges as a mist. As gas expands to drive out the payload, only some propellant evaporates inside the can to maintain an even pressure
II.                Discovery
 Aerosol spray originated in 1790, when carbonated beverages were introduced in France. In 1837, a man named Perpigna invented a soda siphon incorporating a valve. Metal spray cans tested as early as 1862. They were constructed from heavy steel making it too bulky to be commercially successful. In 1899, inventors Helbling and Pertsch patented aerosols pressurized using methyl and ethyl chloride as propellants. On November 23, 1927, Norwegian engineer, Erik Rotheim, patented the first aerosol can that could hold and dispense products and propellant systems. This was the “prototype” of the modern aerosol can and valve. In 1943 during WWII, soldiers also had to deal with a bug and insect problem. Two American scientists from the Department of Agriculture, Lyle David Goodhue and W.N. Sullivan, modified Rotheim’s design to create a portable and dispensable insect repellent. They used a fluorocarbon as the propellant. The aerosol insect repellent was a relief, but sometimes the tubes would become clogged. In addition, the soldiers' insect repellent containers somewhat resembled hand grenades. (Imagine the confusion that may have caused.) Still, the aerosol technology was a huge relief for the itchy soldiers in the fields and jungles.
Figure 1

III.             Biography of Investigator.
Like most inventions, the contribution to aerosol spray included many people, whether it may be just the thought or idea about it, or the significant improvements. However, the man who is given the most credit for this invention is Erik Rotheim, who patented the invention. "Erik Andreas Rotheim was a Norwegian professional chemical engineer and inventor."
He was born in Kristiania (Oslo) in 1898. He earned his engineering degree in Switzerland and established his own company  in Oslo in 1925. He is best known for invention of the aerosol spray can, and the patent application for which he submitted in 1926. The Norwegian patent was granted in June 1929. He was awarded by the United States for the concept in September 1927. "Prior to the issuance of the patent, Rotheim had negotiated an agreement with Alf Bjercke's paint factory in 1928, but commercial success was initially limited. The patent was sold to a US company for NOK 100,000." The patent was not  introduced in the United States untill the 1940s. Norway Post celebrated the invention by issuing a stamp in 1998.
Figure2

IV.             Impact on the World/Humanity
Aerosol spray has done more than just cleaning, keeping your hair straight, and repel. Beginning in the 1970s scientists noticed a massive decrease in the amount of ozone present in the ozone layer. Ozone levels had been constant throughout geological time, but over Antarctica, the levels had dropped so low that there appeared to be a "hole" in the ozone layer. As the ozone hole grew larger, scientists began to suspect that CFCs were responsible. "CFCs react with chlorine and break down, thereby destroying the ozone layer and allowing more radiation from the sun than is normal to reach the earth." In 1978 the U. S. Government banned the use of certain types of CFCs, and manufacturers of aerosol products had to find other propellants. Today, less than two percent of American-made aerosol cans contain CFCs. One promising alternative propellant is Polygas, developed by Scottish inventor Bernard D. Frutin. "This mixture of carbon dioxide and acetone is reportedly superior to other propellants because it is more environmentally sound, less flammable, and creates higher and more consistent pressure."
V.                Journal Article Review.
This article talks about the use of aerosol spray and some of its history. It does not go quite into detail as some of the other sources when talking about who is responsible for the invention/idea. However, it is very specific when talking about how the product works. It talks about the very diverse uses of the product, such as repellent in WWII, and an easy way to paint. One other thing that it talks about is how it is said to cause depletion of the ozone layer.
VI.             List of References

1.     Mary Bellis. “The History of Aerosol Spray Cans” About.com Guide. Retrieved December 11, 2010. http://inventors.about.com/od/astartinventions/a/aerosol.htm

2.     “The Development of Aerosol Technology: A Misty History.” Retrieved December 11, 2010. http://www.aboutaerosols.com/industry.php

3.     “Aerosol Spray” Retrieved December 11, 2010. http://www.discoveriesinmedicine.com/A-An/Aerosol-Spray.html

4.     “The Inventor: Erik Rotheim” Inventors.com. Retrieved December 11, 2010.  http://inventors.findthebest.com/detail/77/Erik-Rotheim