Thursday, December 16, 2010
The television has a great variety of opportunities for the average family, like being informed by the latest news, instantly, or having a favorite entertaining program, or in some cases weight gain (or loss if you count excercise shows). it is also famous for its nickname 'The Idiot Box" by many mindless viewers who live their life by the T.V. This in many cases causes brain melting, overheating, or complete loss under extreme circumstances. In all seriousness, the T.V. has been around since the early 1900s and has gotten the world hooked on some of their favorite tv shows, sports, news, and all kinds of other things since its discovery. the theory had been played with years before, but nobody quite perfected so that it could be sold in stores until about 1948 when the old fashoned "bunny ears" T.V. antennae was invented by Louis Parker.
No one person discovered the television itself. The idea of having moving pictures on a screen was first played with in 1884 when German scientist Paul Nipkow developed a rotating disk technology to transmit pictures over wire. It wasnt until 1953 when the first color T.V. was invented and approved by the FCC to be sold in stores. This color T.V. was first designed by a company by the name of RCA. RCA also released a cable television in the 1940s but it would have been commonly known then as the community antennae television or CATV. With the T.V. you would always expect it to come with a remote control right? wrong. until 1956, if you had a T.V. you had to change the channel in a way we now call "the old fashoned way" by using the dial on the T.V. Come to think of it, now a days, I can't even find the channel flipper on the new T.V.s anyway! Hope i never lose the remote. Children's programming emerged in the 40s but never started to pick up until the 50s when the greatly remembered shows like "Buffalo Bob" Simth's Howdy Doody time showed up and stole the old era children's T.V. spot. Currently, we now have very high technological televisions in our home and just recently, all networking was switched to digital broadcasting, which meant that all old fashoned antennae T.V.'s will no longer work. We now have High Definition television and special movie channels where you can rent the movie right on your T.V. screen through an easy selection process and a small fee. The T.V. has blown up in the face of not only the American people, but people across the world as well. Presently, there are very few Americans or Europeans without a television set in their home.
III. Successes in the World of Television
There were many contributors to the invention of the television, but no one person has gotten credit for the invention. Although, many broadcasting networks have made quite a living of the invention of the television, for example, Robert Iger, the CEO of The Walt Disney Company which owns ABC made $57 million dollars so far as CEO of the company. There are many other people involved in the world of T.V. as we've seen many fads in the era of popular television, like the japenese Animae series we have all seen since the 90s like Pokemon and other smaller T.V. shows of the same category. The point is, if your involved in the world of T.V. odds are your in good shape as long as the ideas are fresh and the people are satisfied.
IV. Impact on the World
The impact that T.V. has had on the world has been a ginormous one. since it got its start in the 50s it has blossomed into one of the household essentials of the modern family. Cable television companies have thrived off our need for a greater thrill, laugh, or cry, while watching this box of magic throw pictures on the screen for more than half a century. The T.V. is an idea that has been improved many times throughout history and I don't see the innovation stopping any time soon.
V. Journal Article Review
"History of Television" was a great article to read. It explained a lot of the history in chronological order and made things clear to understand. The article was very informative for even a simple minded person like me. Overall i enjoyed this atricle the most because of its history of the television networks was enjoyable. This was an extremely helpful article in my project.
VI. Youtube video
Monday, December 13, 2010
I. There are many things that we use almost every day that we never seem to think about. Many of these things are very useful in our lives. One invention that I believe is most used and looked over is the bicycle. Bicycles are used by countless groups of people and things like BMX, Pro Cycling, X-games, recreation, and even as a means of transportation.
II. The documents and creation of the 1st bicycle was in Germany in 1817. They called it a Draisine. The Draisine was very different from the bike we know today. It had no pedals and you move it by pushing your feet on the ground. It was given many names like strider or velocipede, but as the design of the idea changed over the years, the word bicycle seemed to have stick there on. Surprisingly the word “bicycle” was devised by the French 43 years later in the 1860’s.
Between 1820 and 1860, there were many developments being made to make human-powered machines. The goal was to make transportation more efficient and practical. The idea of balancing on two wheels was dismissed and so all the designs had either 3 or 4 wheels. The problem with these designs was that they were extremely heavy and most of them proved to be less efficient than even walking!
In 1870, the Frenchman Eugene Meyer was credited for inventing the high bicycle. The improvements enabled the rider capable of higher speeds based on how long your legs were.
III. The inventor of the first successful traditional (safety) bicycle was John Kemp Starley. He was born in 1854 and was an English inventor who industrialized the bike and became know as the creator of the modern bicycle. He grew up being the son of a gardener. In 1872, he moved out of the house to work with his uncle building Ariel cycles. He started his own company as a partnership with a cycling enthusiast William Sutton, the company was named Starley & Sutton Co. After making kids tricycles for a year or two, the struck gold when they made the safety bike for all ages in 1889.
They became the first bicycling company in the world to mass produce and export bikes. After much success, their company became know as the Rover Cycling Company. Then suddenly in 1901, John Starley passed away, leaving the company with William Sutton. Interestingly enough, as the years went by in the 19th century and the world started to go into the automobile era, the Rover company switched from doing bikes to motorcycles and cars. If you notice how the name Rover rings a bell? Well, this company that made the first ever modern bike, is the same exact company as Land Rover today.
IV. The creation of the bicycle has had a tremendous impact on the world. It opened the way for the later invention of the motorcycle and changed the way many people live, especially in countries where there is no gas or where the gas is too expensive, it has given people a means of transportation for just about anybody. Also, the bicycle has paved the way not only for transportation, but for fitness too. The bicycle has such a great impact on the world and it continues to this day.
V. The article titled “Rover – How it Began” was a well written synapsis of John Starley’s rise to making the Rover Cycling company. It explained how he rose to the top and became the number one bicycle company during the early 1900’s.
Sunday, December 12, 2010
Today we are so focused on our IPods and burned CD’s but we rarely take a minute to recognize the roots of these sounds. For the most part a lot of what music is happens to come from the electric guitar. This breakthrough of an invention came in 1932 and was invented by George Beauchamp.
The electric guitar was first manufactured in the 1930’s. The earliest electric guitars had small sound holes on them. These types of guitars are still quite popular but not as popular as the new models. There are many types of electric guitars such as Solid Body, String-Through Body, Solid-Acoustic, Semi-Acoustic, Chambered, Electric Acoustic, Seven string, Eight and nine string, Ten string, Twelve string, 3rd bridge and double neck guitar. All these types of electric guitars are very different from acoustic guitars. Acoustic guitars, which have hallow bodies are used another way. Both acoustic and electric guitars convert their sound by just simply playing the strings but the electric guitar needs to be hooked up with special audible equipment like guitar amplifiers oppose to the or it would not be loud enough to perform with. Acoustic may be more natural playing but electric guitars in most cases are more upbeat and better suited for songs in the category of rock, jazz and the classics.
There are many people who had the idea of constructing inventions such as the electric guitar but the man who made the first successful instrument of this sort was George Beauchamp. Beauchamp was born on March 18, 1899. He was born and raised in Coleman County, Texas and grew up playing the violin and the lap steel guitar. As he got older these instruments inspired him to experiment with the idea of creating instruments. Beauchamp tried to invent the electric lap steel guitar and then went on to create the electric violin and eventually the first successful electric guitar. Beauchamp was involved with music nearly all his life until he died of a fatal heart attack on March 30, 1941. He was a brilliant inventor of musical instruments and gave a gift to the musical world through is creation of the electric guitar.
Impact On World/Humanity:
The Electric Guitar has without a doubt changed the world for the better. It has impacted the way we listen to music. It is a great addition to most songs we hear. Music inspires us and the electric guitar creates a sound that gets us out of our seats, pumps people up and makes us want to go out and do something with our lives. The electric guitar made the way for music like Rock, Jazz and many others. These types of music have influence lives everywhere around the world. Famous musicians like Jimi Hendrix would have never had gotten the chance to change the world with their music if not for the electric guitar. It is safe to say that the electric guitar has left a mark on the world today.
In the Journal Article, “A Brief History of the Electric Guitar”, it describes all the types of electric guitars and what makes them different and how they are built. It says how popular the solid body electric guitar type is compared to others. Rollin’s also explains how the breakthrough of the electric guitar jumpstarted bug bands in the 30’s and 40’s.
Bellis, Mary “History of the Accoustic Guitar and Electric Guitar” Dec. 2010
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Lollar, Rick “History of the Electric Guitar” Feb. 2005
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Brain, Marshall “How Electric Guitars Work” Jul. 2002
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“Can you hear me now?”
Cell Phones, By Sarah King
Cell Phones, By Sarah King
The cell phone originally was introduced in the 1970’s, and they were about the size of a car battery. Dr. Martin Cooper from Motorola was the first person to show a mobile phone. Motorola introduced the first commercially available mobile cell phone in 1973. By 1990, 12.4 million people worldwide had cell phones.
The first call placed from a cell phone was from a car in St. Louis, Missouri on June 17, 1946. However, this system was too impractical from what we consider a mobile handset today. The equipment weighed 80 pounds and the service cost around $337.33 today.
The first commercially automated cell phone service, 1G, or first generation, was launched in Japan, and within five years grew to a nationwide service. In 1991 Finland introduced the first “modern” network technology, on digital 2G, or second generation. In 2001 the first commercial launch of 3G, or third generation was again in Japan.
Today, cell phones are quickly advancing to 4G, or fourth generation. In December, 2009, Sprint began advertising the first 4G cell phone. Future advancements for the mobile phone are close on the horizon, as prototypes are being built and tested daily.
Martin Cooper was born December 26, 1928. After World War II, he left the Navy and in 1954 was hired by Motorola to work on their mobile communications project. On April 3, 1973, Martin Cooper made the first cell phone call in public. This phone connected Cooper to the base station on the roof of the Burlington House across the street from a hotel where Cooper was supposed to later hold a press conference. Reporters and passer-bys watched as Cooper dialed, help the phone to his ear, and spoke to Dr. Joel S. Engel. After demonstrating the cell phone prototype, Cooper allowed some reporters to call anyone they wanted to show how well the cell phone could work.
Cell phones have become a norm in today’s society. When the cell phone as first introduced, it was simply a way to make calls on the go an communicate between people. Today, it has become a way to surf the net, check emails, play games with friends across the globe, and to create and identity for yourself, to name a few functions. Users can choose a background, a ringtone, and personalize voicemails and contact pictures. Cell phones can help to make everyday lives easier by making things such as emails and business information accessible on the go.
But with all the pluses, are of course negatives. Because cell phones have become part of us, many people don’t think twice about using cell phones while driving, increasing the numbers of fatal accidents. Cell phone users need to be more cognicent of where cell phones are used. Noise pollution is also an issue. In 2003, cell phone conversations totaled almost 830 billion minutes. Today, certain places are banning cell phones and asking people to silence their cell phones.
Review of Journal Article:
In the journal article “Cell phone Induced Failures of Visual Attention During Stimulated driving, it examines the results of how talking on a cell phone affects simulated driving. The findings of the study are that using a mobile phone while driving distracts the driver from fully being able to focus on the road, and drivers who used cell phones were more likely to look directly at a road sign or such and not remember it later.
Javadi, K. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.askkia.com/articles/societal-impact-of-wireless-technology-on-society.html
(n.d.). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_phone
(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.soc.hawaii.edu/leon/409as2006/wong/visualattention.pdf
Nash, J., & , Initials. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.suite101.com/content/cell-phone-history-a47053
DNA testing is a technique used by scientists to identify individuals by their respective DNA profiles. DNA profiles are sets of numbers that reflect a person's DNA makeup, which can also be used as the person's identifier. Although 99.9% of human DNA is the same in every person, enough of the DNA is different to distinguish one individual from another. Alec Jeffreys discovered it in the 1980’s. Since then criminal investigation has been revolutionized.
On September 10, 1984 Jeffreys made a monumental discovery. He noticed the difference between DNA. He first tested his technique on a double-murder case. Because of DNA testing Colin Pitchfork was convicted of the murder. Without this method another man would have been incorrectly persecuted. Since then DNA testing has taken place in numerous cases, leaving no doubt who is innocent and who is guilty.
III. Biography of Inventor
Alec Jeffreys was a scientist from the start. He was born on January 9th, 1950 in Oxford, England. When he was eight years old, his father gave him a small chemistry kit. When he got a little older, his father gave him a telescope. Finally, when he turned twelve, his gave him a dissecting kit. He actually brought home a dead cat and dissected it. When Jeffreys got older he followed his passion of science and got a degree in biochemistry. It was because of his studies that he discovered DNA profiling.
IV. Impact on World/ Humanity
DNA testing has had a huge impact on crime fighting and criminal justice. DNA testing has been the silver bullet for crime fighting. All that is need is a fingerprint, a single strand of hair, or even a drop blood. Because of this, narrowing down suspects is very simple. This way, innocent people are not accused and the criminals can be brought to justice.
V. Journal Article Review
This article was incredibly helpful in finding information. It helped me truly understand what DNA testing is all about. It showed the good and bad sides of it. It tackled the fact that it was incredibly useful for solving crimes and asked the question of whether or not it was an invasion of privacy.
This video is Alec Jeffreys talking about DNA testing. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0jmB1SuK-Vo
Joseph Neuberger comments on proposal for mandatory DNA sampling of those individuals charged with a criminal offence in the City of Toronto. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wBstIzITiVs
Science hall of fame http://www.invent.org/hall_of_fame/235.html
Harlan, Leigh M. (2004) When Privacy Fails: Invoking a Property Paradigm to Mandate the Destruction of DNA Samples. Duke Law Journal, Vol. 54
Youtube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wBstIzITiVs; http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wBstIzITiVs
The cell is the major component to a human which consists of trillions of cells. The cell cannot be seen by the human eye which means we can only see cells through a microscope. The cell is built up of many parts including: a membrane, nucleus, cytoskeleton, mitochondrians, etc. All of these things are called organelles which carry on specific functions to keep the cell alive. Without these organelles cells would not be alive which means neither would humans. In this project I will tell you who founded the cell and how and how it affected today's life.
The cell was discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665 while he was looking at alot of different organisms in his microscope, one being a piece of cork. Hooke noticed something odd of this piece of cork and it was that there were tiny empty spaces that looked like the cells in a monastery which is where he got the trem "cell". He then published this discovery in his famous book Micrographia. Later on, scientist started to compare differences of cells which are two classes: eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells. The difference is that eukaryotic cells have a membrane-bound nucleus while prokayotic cells do not. This discovery by Robert Hooke led to many more interesting findings of the things called "cells".
III. Biography of the Founder
The cell was founded in 1665 by a man named Robert Hooke who was at the time studying the subjects of astronomy, biology, and physics at Oxford. Before this time, little Robert Hooke was a boy with a pretty bad childhood. Robert was boorn on July 18, 1635. His family includes his father John, his mother Cicely, his older sister Katherine, and finally his older brother John. Robert was a child of very bad health and his parents suspected he would not make it through childhood. And to add onto the bad luck, Robert's father died when he was 13 years old. Shortly after his father death, Robert was influenced in painting by John Hoskyns. He followed John H. and copied many of his fantastic paintings. Shortly later, he was then sent to London to be an apprentince of the famous painter Sir Peter Lely. In London, Robert found out that the smell of the oil pants agrivated his headaches and that is why he gave up on painting. During his studies at Oxford, Robert was influenced by a man named John Wilkins who was a scientist/politician. Thanks to the help of John W., Robert became an assistant of Dr. Thomas Willis in which Robert had to prepare the chemicals for him. Dr. Willis later introduced Robert to another famous scientist, Robert Boyle who is famous for Boyle's Law. In 1665, Robert Hooke published his very well-known book Micrographia. In his study of astronomy, in 1664 he discovered the rotation of Jupiter by looking at it through a telescope as a spot on Jupiter moved east to west in a matter of two hours. He then published this in the Micrographia. In this book, Hooke describes all of his organism findings includind when he first found cells in a piece of a cork and he wrote and drew about this and his many others. He later died on March 3, 1703.
IV. Impact on World/Humanity
The discovery made by Robert Hooke opened up many doors to scientific discoveries in today's life. Scientists would observe many different organisms and they would find differences in these organisms and put them in a specific class. The two main classes of cells are eukaryotic or prokaryotic. Like I said above eukaryotic cells have a membrane-bound nucleus while prokayotic cells do not. Two examples of doors opening are of Theodor Schwann and Matthias Jakob Schleiden. Schwann and Schleiden looked deeper into the differences of cells in different organisms. Schwann observed the animal cell and how it had different cell organelles and structure of other organisms. Schleiden observed the cells of plants and how the have cell walls and different organelles of other organisms. These are just two examples of the many that were opened by Hooke. It's amazing how a little peek at a piece of cork can evolutionize our knowledge of our own structure and of other organisms.
V. Journal Article Review
This article was a very incisive and helpful article of Robert Hooke and his life. I found it extremely helpful when I was writing on Hooke's early life, and it even had the most specific details. At one point it got off a little to specific but in the end it made the big picture pretty clear. Without this article, my biography of Hooke would have been alot shorter and alot less in quality.
VI. Video: The Cell
1) Chico, Tita (2006). "Minute Particulars: Microscopy and Eighteenth-Century Narrative". University of Manitoba. Copyright (2006).
2) Tan Drake, Ellen. "Restless Genius: Robert Hooke and His Earthly Thoughts".
Oxford University Press. Copyright (1996).
3) "Robert Hooke." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 12 Dec. 2010 http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/271280/Robert-Hooke.
4) "Robert Hooke and His Microscope" http://roberthooke.com/robert_hooke_biography_001.htm (2002).
He was born in Kristiania (Oslo) in 1898. He earned his engineering degree in Switzerland and established his own company in Oslo in 1925. He is best known for invention of the aerosol spray can, and the patent application for which he submitted in 1926. The Norwegian patent was granted in June 1929. He was awarded by the United States for the concept in September 1927. "Prior to the issuance of the patent, Rotheim had negotiated an agreement with Alf Bjercke's paint factory in 1928, but commercial success was initially limited. The patent was sold to a US company for NOK 100,000." The patent was not introduced in the United States untill the 1940s. Norway Post celebrated the invention by issuing a stamp in 1998.