Thursday, October 21, 2010

The Exerspy by Nico Moschetto

I. Introduction
Have you ever wanted to lose weight? Ever feel like you couldnt do it because its because you cant keep track of what your eating or how much physical activity you get? Well, now you can! With the brand new exerspy created by bodymedia. Bodymedia is a fitness group dedicated to finding new breakthroughs in weight loss, muscle gain, and staying in shape. This was a project launched in august 2009 by dotfit (dotfit being a distributor of the product). Its as simple as plugging into your computer and recieving your daily readings. This lets you know if you need more physical activity and if you need more sleep (if worn at night).
Figure 1

II. Discovery
Before the exerspy was invented there were many attempts to put together a system of tracking calories and footsteps. The closest they got was a stepcounter. Now, using modern day technology we can track how many calories we eat, how many steps we take, and our daily physical activity. The exerspy has sensors on the underside of the armband that sample physiological data at a rate of 32 times/second. This armband has four diffferent sensors that process this information. One of them is the heat flux sensor. This sensor measures the rate at which heat is dissipating. This contributes to the energy expenditure measurement. The two access accelerometer measures all motion including how many steps you have taken. This measurement can be seen after you plug it into your computer. This device also reads your resting energy expenditure, active energy expenditure, and physical activity duration. The reason for so many sensors is because if you only had one sensor measuring movement, a lot of activites would look the same. With both the movement sensor and the heat sensor, the exerspy can tell the difference between other activities. For example, riding in a truck can cause a lot of movement, which causes the movement sensor to detect that you are doing something active, while the heat sensor senses no rise in activity, causing the device to recognize that the activity going on is one not requiring very much effort, while the movement sensor alone would detect riding in a shaky truck as a physical activity.   

figure 2

III. Biography of Investigator

Bodymedia was founded in 1999 as a pioneer in developing wearable body monitoring systems. They have helped people lose weight and improve preformance ever since. They are the ones behind the multi-sensor technology which has allowed them to monitor calorie expenditure, steps taken, and sleep efficiency. They have also geared their products twards being comfortable and being over 90% accurate.

IV. Impact on the World/Humanity

This product has a very useable program with as simple reqirements as owning a computer, which 66% of Americans do. This device could drastically change the way obese people look at their dieting habits as well as excercise habits. This device could also contribute to the weight that needs to be lost in America currently. Knowing the problem is half the battle. Knowing what to do about it is 1/4, but doing something to fix it is the other 1/4. Yet somehow, people are still too lazy to get up and do anything. So if your fat and sitting here reading this, get off your fat lazy buttox and do something about it!
This Video sums up my project in a nut shell:

V. Journal Article Review

 My source for a journal article was provided to me by Michael Oviedo. His presentation on how the DotFit exerspy worked was very helpful to my research. I was provided with accurate information about the exerspy, how it works, and why it is helpful to people who want to lose weight or gain muscle. This was a much better source than the internet reviews that I googled, which only gave me the same information ten times. In my opinion it is much better to have first hand experience with the topic and the people around the resources than to wing it on the internet or even books for that matter.


My figures i recieved from a powerpoint sent to me by
Michael Oviedo, M.S., NASM-PES
Research & Development Specialist
Office. 805.409.3377, ext. 104

body media information

Friday, October 15, 2010

A "Wave" to Kill Cancer

I. Introduction:

There are many unpleasant things that happen in this world, whether it is hunger, disease, or genocide sparked by government corruption. These things happen and they aren’t predictable or 100% controllable. On the other hand, there is a topic that is one of the most controversial issues in the world today, is there a potentially harmless cure for cancer? For quite a while, the answer to that question has always been chemotherapy. Chemotherapy treatment started in 1965 but was discovered in the 1940’s by Alfred Gilman and Louis S. Goodman. This treatment involves the use of folic acids and nitrogen mustards and has proven to be a good combatant towards lymphoma (cancer) but includes offsetting side effects in which some do harm the body. For example, almost all diagnosed cancer patients will lose their hair, endure loss or damage of bone marrow, and in worse cases sterilization. The other downside to this is that the treatment isn’t even close to guaranteed success every time. So this left researchers and scientist for decades on a mission to find a way to defeat cancer without damaging the body. After much research, people have become less hopeful that there was a way until 2003, when a man no one expected made a breakthrough that could change the world forever. Only 50 miles away from Naples, once living on Sanibel Island, who made his profound discovery in his garage, his name is John Kanzius.

II. Discovery:

John S. Kanzius made a breakthrough that could change the world forever. In 2003, he invented a machine that targeted and controlled radio waves to be directed at a given target, having the intention of killing cancer cells and leaving healthy cells untouched.

in picture above: Mr. Kanzius and his ground breaking machine in his garage.

The procedure itself would only take less than 10 minutes according to Mr. Kanzius, and would not involve any difficult process and the patient would not feel any pain or discomfort. The procedure would start with the patient being injected with tiny metal nano-particles (nano-tubes). Then it would be distributed throughout the body through the blood stream, and by the use of targeting molecules, they would attach themselves to infected cancer cells. The only part that might hurt is the injection for the people that are afraid of a shot or IV, but other than that, it is simple. The next step is the patient would then be exposed to a radio wave energy field, which again the patient would feel nothing while the energy waves would slowly heat the nano-particles just enough to kill the cancerous cells that there attached to without harming any healthy cells around them.

They have tested the machine by injecting liver with carbon nano-particles. Then putting it through a radio wave energy field, they found that it only heated the exact spots of the liver where the particles were located.

John Kanzius, while experimenting with his machine, accidently discovered that the radio waves condensed water. He didn’t go far in-depth in research about this since he was focused on a cure for cancer, but the water condensing led him to yet another break through. He took a test tube of salt water and lit a paper towel inside the test tube. When he sent radio waves through the salt water, the salt water ignited and was capable of producing a continuous flame of up to 3,000 degrees as long as radio waves were going through it.

III. Biography:

John Kanzius was born and raised in Erie Pennsylvania. He never went to college and had no prior teachings in science and biology besides high school. For not having a college degree, he found Instead that he always had a knack for radio broadcasting and engineering. He would make radio transmitters all the time when he was a kid because it always fascinated him. So he went on to become a radio and TV engineer and also a radio station owner. His business was very successful financially and ran a steady income through his late 20’s and early 30’s. Since he was becoming so well off so quickly, he was able to sell his station and retired early and moved to Florida. Kanzius bought a fairly nice house in Sanibel with his wife, and lived many of their years in the good life.

Like every good story, one day turned Mr. Kanzius’s life from good to bad. He was headed for a regular physical, and his doctor suggest that he sees a specialist because he was showing starting symptoms of Leukemia. He was hit hard by this news but he didn’t tell his wife because he thought it was a mistake. Sadly, it wasn’t and he was diagnosed with Lukemia.

His first 2 weeks of chemotherapy made him realize how the treatment can cripple cancer patients from being happy and restrict patients from living regular lives again. This inspired him, a man who wasn’t a doctor or didn’t have a college degree, to search in hope of discovering an alternative cure for cancer.

One night, not long after his first treatments of chemo, his wife awoke to the sound of metal and hammers being hit together downstairs in the kitchen. She got out of bed and went into the kitchen to find the noise coming from her husband screwing and melding her pie pans together. This was the beginning of his great invention. He was able to build it within the time of his leukemia, and finished in 2003. His invention gained so much attention and was so impressive that he was awarded the key of the city from his hometown in Pennsylvania.

As for the Leukemia, it spread far within his body and John S. Kanzius passed away in 2009, leaving behind all his work in the hands of nationally known Dr. Steven Curly with whom he worked with since 2004. He is continuing the work and research of the treatment.

IV. Impact on the World:

The impact that this discovery has on the world has the potential of being one of the biggest ground breaking inventions of modern science and health worldwide. The invention itself is still on the chalkboard as far as finding a way to make self-locating molecules to direct the nano-particles of the injection capable of finding and attaching themselves to the cancer invested cells. That is the only unsolved roadblock to the treatment. Once that is figured out, we potentially could have a way to save millions of people from enduring the pain and stress of chemotherapy and to be saved from a disease that has caused so much suffering. To stop such a disease by just a simple procedure would change the world forever by doing something no one has done before. For when asked by a reporter what made a man like Kanzius think that he could cure cancer, Kanzuis replied with a laugh "What made me think I couldn't cure cancer? Nobody else was doing it!"

V. References accessed 10/14/10 accessed 10/13/10

Produced by Tanya Simon © MMVIII, CBS Interactive Inc. acessed10/12/10 accessed 10/12/10

Thursday, October 14, 2010

Napalm by Hanna Valdovinos

I. Introduction

Napalm, one of the most effective inventions ever made. Or just the most destructive and dangerous weapon ever made, a weapon that leaves nothing but death and pain for generations. Such an invention was made by the U.S during World War II by Louis Fieser and his team of chemists. Made to protect the country, but at the cost of other country’s innocent lives. But as the Dr. Louis Fieser says “I have no right to judge the mortality of napalm just because I invented it.”

II. Discovery

Napalm is seen in many different forms throughout history. Napalm is a powder that when mixed with gasoline is used to remove vegetation, and cause fear along the way. Another weapon is a mixture of fuel and gelling solution that when combined produce a thickened mixture, the Fire bomb fuel gel mixture. When a napalm bomb is set off, it produces great amounts of CO, carbon monoxide. This causes difficulties breathing, making the victims pass out and burn. Napalm goes through the process of incomplete combustion when ignited, which means it rapidly deoxygenates the air and replaces the oxygen with CO. 0.4% CO is fatal in one hour because of the high similarity between the carbon monoxide and hemoglobin. Napalm causes the localized atmosphere to turn to at least 20% CO. Inflammable napalm weapons can kill or gravely wound by immolation or asphyxia. Usually the third degree burns don’t hurt so much because the skin nerves have been killed by the heat. But second degree burns on the other hand are gravely painful because the skin is burned but the nerves still work so the victim can feel the burning of their skin.

III. Biography of Investigator

Dr. Louis F. Fieser was born in Columbus, Ohio on April 7th, 1899. He went to high school in Columbus and graduated from Williams College with a chemistry degree in 1920. He was an organic chemist and then went to being professor at Harvard University by 1968. He was renowned as an inventor, in 1943, for a military effective form of napalm. Throughout his years he also had other award-winning research. Like for example the first synthesis of vitamin K, or the synthesis and screening of quinines as antimalarial drugs. Then he died around July 25th, 1977.

Louis F. Fieser (1899-1977)

IV. Impact on the World/Humanity

Napalm has had a great impact on the world. Not a good effect in my opinion. The countries that were affected, like Japan, were severely so damaged that they are just now recovering. Napalm was not only a powerful weapon, but a wide spread weapon too. It affected the innocent people who were so unlucky to be there. It had no consideration towards children or the elderly. Some may argue that the sacrifices had to be made to keep the county safe, but now all there is is fighting and weapons pointed at each other waiting for the other to make the first move.

V. Journal Article Review

This journal article talks about how the napalm weapons have killed other country’s’ people. Innocent people, people who did not deserve to die that way. It also talks about how the new war technology is so great, that they are easily used in an inhumanly and massively destructive manner. And lastly the article talks about the outcome of all the destruction, the devastation, and the losses. So all in all, the new war technology, Napalm weapons, may be powerful. But they are corruptive and inhumane. They are not toys to be taken lightly.


1. Gates, M. (1994). Biographical memoir for Louis Frederick Fieser. Biogr. Mem. Natl. Acad Sci. 65, 161-175. Retrieved October 14, 2010, from
2. Military. (2005). Napalm. Napalm Composition, Napalm in War. Retrieved October 11, 2010, from
3. Protesting Napalm. (1968). The Man Who Invented Napalm. Retrieved October 11, 2010, from
4. Selden, M. (1991). The United States, Japan and the Atomic Bomb. Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars, 23(1), 3-12. Retrieved October 7, 2010, from Questia database:

Wind Turbines- Lisa Dunleavy

I. Introduction

The United States has become dependent on resources that are nonrenewable and exceed our ability of produce. Therefore, it is crucial that alternative energy sources are found to support and sustain our countries energy requirement. Wind turbines are one of these solutions.

II. Discovery

Charles F. Brush, born in Euclid, Ohio in 1849, invented the first wind-powered turbine. Brush had been a wunderkind since the age of 15 when he was building microscopes, telescopes, and electrical gadgets for school friends. He graduated from the University of Michigan with a degree in mining engineering and became famous for his dynamic and arc lights. With all of these inventions, Brush became rather wealthy. In his backyard in Ohio, he conducted the first wind-powered turbine. The turbine was 60 feet tall and weighed 40 tons. It was made of wrought iron and rested on a gudgeon (an axis that an object sways or swings on). The wheel of the wind turbine had a diameter of 56 feet with 144 blades. The wind turbine made 500 revolutions every minute and at its climax, the wind turbine produced 12 kilowatts. To put this into perspective, the typical household in the United States consumes 110,655 kilowatt hours of electricity per year or around 300 kilowatts per day.

Figure 1, Brush's wind-powered turbine

Charles Brush takes the credit for the invention of the first ever-recorded inventor of the wind turbine; however, the Egyptians and Afghanis were the first to use wind energy. The Egyptians used wind energy to sail their boats and they built the first windmill in Babylon. The Afghanis made windmills around 30 feet tall with blades as long as 16 feet.

III. What is wind energy?

Wind energy is an effect of solar energy. The sun’s radiation sends waves, which heats different parts of the earth. This causes hot air to rise, which reduces the atmospheric pressure at the Earth’s surface, causing cold air to come and replace it. In turn, this creates wind, the basis for wind turbines. Another way of explaining wind energy is that the land heats up faster than the water. Since, warm air raises, the cold air that comes off the water rushes in to take the place of the warm risen air on the land, creating wind. At night this process is reversed, the land cools down faster than the water and so the warmer air from the water rises and the cooler air from the land rushes in to replace the warm ocean air. Some factors that influence these wind patterns besides night and day are seasons, humidity, and how much the land and water reflect sunlight.

IV. What is a wind turbine?

A wind turbine takes the kinetic energy from the wind, and turns it into mechanical energy. The mechanical energy is mostly used in “farm windmills” for pumping water into rural areas. Another standard use of windmills on a farm are grinding grains, propelling boats, or sawing. Wind turbines are the quintessential function to supply electricity to people’s homes and businesses.

There are two general designs of a wind turbine. The vertical axis or “egg beater” design which is less commonly used than the horizontal axis turbine. The general make up of a turbine includes: Rotor or blades that are used to convert the wind’s kinetic energy into a rotational energy, a nacelle or enclosure that usually contains a gearbox, but not always and includes a generator and drive train, a tower that is used to support the rotor of the wind mill, and all of the controls, cables, and equipment. The basic design of a wind turbine is that it is comprised of an alternator that connects to the propeller. In the alternator are magnets which when the wind blows and spins the propeller, the magnets in the alternator change the kinetic energy into mechanical energy. Wind turbines are constructed mainly of steel with rotor blades built mostly of polyester or wood epoxy.

Figure 2

Wind turbines can differ in size and figure 3 shows the different sizes and the energy produced. For a land-based wind farm, the sizes of the rotor diameter range from 50 to 90 meters with towers around the same size. For an off shore turbine, the sizes will be much larger, the largest being 100 meters for the rotor diameter. One of the major reasons that off shore wind turbines are bigger is because it is easier to transport bigger rotors on a ship than on land. Lastly, the turbines that are for small businesses or on a residential farm are much smaller, 8 meters or less.

Figure 3







Rotor (meters)







Rating (KW)







Annual MWh







The wind speed as well as the size of the wind turbine determines the productivity of electricity. There are requirements on how high the average wind speed of an area must be to qualify for a wind turbine. For the small business or residential turbines, the required wind speed is nine mph. For utility- powered wind turbines or off shore turbines, the required wind speed is 13 mph. The amount of energy that can be used from the kinetic wind energy corresponds to the speed cubed. This shows that even the most insignificant change in wind speed can drastically change the potential energy produced.

V. Impact on the world

The world is now using wind energy, a renewable energy, to bring electricity to homes all around the world replacing the use of fossil fuels that give off green house emissions. It also affects small businesses and residential farmers so they can do their daily jobs while using a free source of energy, wind. Some countries are taking greater advantage of wind energy than others; however, each country is making some effort to help the environment and become green with wind energy. Europe used the most wind energy in the year 2005. With Spain and Germany as its prime countries, Europe represented 55% of the global wind energy used in 2005. In 2008, the U.S took over that reputation. Both North and South America combined in 2005 had only 17% of the global use of wind energy with 98% of that coming from North America. The U.S was the fastest growing country to produce wind energy; however, it has now shifted to China. In 2005, Asia increased the amount of wind energy used by 48% and in 2008 acquired one third of the wind energy that was produced.

The magnitude of wind energy has grown 24% in 2005 and 29% in 2008 and is still increasing each year. This increase in the use of wind energy has led to 235,000 jobs in 2005 and in 2008 around 400,000 people were being employed by the wind business.

VI. Costs of wind turbines

The costs differ by the size of the wind turbine, the amount of wind in the area where they are located, and how much maintenance the wind turbine needs. The off shore wind turbines are more expensive as they require ships to transport the materials and workers to build and maintain the wind turbines. Making the turbines on land less expensive and easier to access. The cost of the wind energy production has lessened one-fifth of its cost from 1999 to 2005 and is predicted to continue decreasing in price. The cost of wind energy is now less than fossil fuels mainly due to the increase of the cost in oil as well as the continuous advancement in the wind turbine technology.

Wind energy companies are paying some farmers not to install wind turbines, why? If you put wind turbines too close to each other, one will steal the others wind. These wind companies pay the neighboring farmers to not buy wind turbines from a rivalry company, in order to protect the accessibility of wind.

VII. Advantages and disadvantages of wind turbines

Advantages of wind turbines and wind energy:

- Wind is a renewable resource

- Wind is free

- There is not much maintenance

- The production of wind energy does not emit greenhouse gas


- The wind doesn't always blow

- There has to be a back-up system

- Not aesthetically pleasing

- Birds and bats can be killed by the blades

- Wind turbines can’t be in a place with too little or too much wind

VIII. How efficient are wind turbines?

It is important to remember that no resource has a 100% efficiency rate. The efficiency rate of a propeller turbine (can be either horizontal or vertical axis) is about 10-20% and about 35% for the Darrieus or vertical axis turbine. The efficiency is estimated to increase with the advancement of the wind turbine technology.

IX. Journal summary on the Damage Detection in Wind Turbine Blades using two Different Acoustic Techniques:

Jungert, Anne. "Damage Detection in Wind Turbine Blades Using Two Different Acoustic Techniques." The E-Journal of Nondestructive Testing (2008). Print.

This article talks about the safety of the new and improved wind turbines that are yet to come. Also, the wear and tare on the blades of wind mills and how a breakdown of a blade could cause serious economic damage. To make sure these breakdowns are rare, the wind turbines are to be inspected regularly like buildings. The author talks about her study about light weight wind turbine equipment being more affective in producing energy while being as affective in safety.

X. References:

"How To Build A Wind Generator - Or Buy One." Alternate Energy Sources For Flourishing Future. Web. 7 Oct. 2010. .

"Wind Energy Basics." American Wind Energy Association. Web. 5 Oct. 2010.

The Invention of the Computer


The computer is one of the most influential inventions of all time. It can do so many things and give us an unlimited amount of knowledge. Just typing in a phrase and reading a document can help us learn almost anything. The computer was first being designed in the 1930’s and is always being reinvented. If someone were to buy the most update computer in the world by the time they had set it up at home it would already be outdated.

Invention of Computer

There is no single inventor of the computer. It was a combination of many inventors and ideas. In the 1930s, in Germany, Konrad Zuse wanted to create a computer that was able to calculate after being given hard calculations to do. After a great deal of work he created the first calculator. From there the idea grew; a company called IBM started working on the same thing at roughly the same time. In August 1942, John W. Mauchly, a physicist, tried to invent his own kind of computer. It was huge and used f 18,000 vacuum tubes, 70,000 resistors, 10,000 capacitors, 6,000 switches and 1,500 relays just to make it work. John Vincent Atanasoff created the ABC computer. This was able to solve linear equations. John von Neumann, an influential mathematician, designed a universal computer. This computer was able to compute a table of square numbers, and has worked its way up to where it is today.

History of the Computer/Inventors of the Computer

Several people invented the computer. As I cannot do a biography on every inventor, I found a graph of the history of the computer and its evolution.


Konrad Zuse - Z1 Computer First freely programmable computer.


John Atanasoff & Clifford Berry
ABC Computer Who was first in the computing biz is not always as easy as ABC.


Howard Aiken & Grace Hopper
Harvard Mark I Computer The Harvard Mark 1 computer.


John Presper Eckert & John W. Mauchly
ENIAC 1 Computer 20,000 vacuum tubes later...


Frederic Williams & Tom Kilburn
Manchester Baby Computer & The Williams Tube Baby and the Williams Tube turn on the memories.


John Bardeen, Walter Brattain & Wiliam Shockley
The Transistor No, a transistor is not a computer, but this invention greatly affected the history of computers.


John Presper Eckert & John W. Mauchly
UNIVAC Computer First commercial computer & able to pick presidential winners.


International Business Machines
IBM 701 EDPM Computer IBM enters into 'The History of Computers'.


John Backus & IBM
FORTRAN Computer Programming Language The first successful high level programming language.

(In Use 1959)

Stanford Research Institute, Bank of America, and General Electric
The first bank industry computer - also MICR (magnetic ink character recognition) for reading checks.


Jack Kilby & Robert Noyce
The Integrated Circuit Otherwise known as 'The Chip'


Steve Russell & MIT
Spacewar Computer Game The first computer game invented.


Douglas Engelbart
Computer Mouse & Windows Nicknamed the mouse because the tail came out the end.


ARPAnet The original Internet.


Intel 1103 Computer Memory The world's first available dynamic RAM chip.


Faggin, Hoff & Mazor
Intel 4004 Computer Microprocessor The first microprocessor.


Alan Shugart &IBM
The "Floppy" Disk Nicknamed the "Floppy" for its flexibility.


Robert Metcalfe & Xerox
The Ethernet Computer Networking Networking.


Scelbi & Mark-8 Altair & IBM 5100 Computers The first consumer computers.


Apple I, II & TRS-80 & Commodore Pet Computers More first consumer computers.


Dan Bricklin & Bob Frankston
VisiCalc Spreadsheet Software Any product that pays for itself in two weeks is a surefire winner.


Seymour Rubenstein & Rob Barnaby
WordStar Software Word Processors.


The IBM PC - Home Computer From an "Acorn" grows a personal computer revolution


MS-DOS Computer Operating System From "Quick And Dirty" comes the operating system of the century.


Apple Lisa Computer The first home computer with a GUI, graphical user interface.


Apple Macintosh Computer The more affordable home computer with a GUI.


Microsoft Windows Microsoft begins the friendly war with Apple.

Influence on Humanity

Computers are one of the most influential inventions of all time. When I was born in 1994, 25% of households had a personal computer. 16 years later 80% of adults own a computer. This is a major difference and it is continuing to grow every day. Teens on average spend 31 hours a week online. The average workweek in the USA is 32-40 hours a week. Overall, the Internet has a total of 52,357,293,525 hits per day. Over 52 billion hits a day. It should be impossible for a product to be used over 52 billion times in a day. The top three viewed sites get in-between 4 and 5 billion hits a day. Google, the number one site, is the face of the Internet. It is the most common homepage.

Facebook is the second most viewed website, it has a quarter-billion users. It is projected to be worth 33 billion dollars, making it worth more then eBay, Costco, and many other large companies. There is even a new movie about it.

Next in the list is Youtube. Youtube is a video sharing website, where people can watch and upload videos. Youtube averages about a billion hits per day. Youtube is basically destroying TV as it is getting many more views per day. For example, the premier comedy news show is the Daily Show with John Stuart. Philip DeFranco, who goes by SXEPHIL on Youtube, also has a comedy news show which he calls the Philip DeFranco show or PDS for short. They both put out videos Monday though Friday. The Daily Show averages 900,000 views a day, which does incredibly well for today’s standards. The Philip DeFranco show averages 1,200,000 views a day. On another note, Philip DeFranco is the ninth most subscribed person on Youtube meaning that there are still eight more people on Youtube that are more popular then Philip DeFranco.

Another industry that the computer is killing is papers. As it is easier to get news from the web then the newspaper, the New York Times says that they will go out of press in the near future and go 100% digital. Amazon came out with the kindle last year, and over Christmas they sold more eBooks then they did real books. Overall, the computer has truly changed the way the world works.

Review of Journal Article

In the journal article Atanasoff: inventor, problem-solver, and inventor of the real computer, Jo Campbell interviewed one of the most important men in the invention of the computer. Atanasoff talked about what he did and said he didn’t believe it would take off like it did and he believes it is one of the most important inventions of all time. Overall, the article talked about how Atanasoff helped invent the computer.


The Invention of the Computer-

The history of Computers-

Atanasoff: inventor, problem-solver, and inventor of the real computer-