Saturday, April 30, 2011

The Discovery of the Krebs Cycle By: Blake Werab

I. Introduction
The Krebs cycle, or the citric acid cycle, was discovered in 1937 by a German man named Hans Adolf Krebs. Krebs is not only known for the Krebs cycle but he is also known by the urea cycle. The urea cycle is where animals convert toxic waste nitrogen to urea which can then be exerted. These discovery were huge to the science revolution and they made a big impact to how we understand life and its components.
II. Discovery
As I said above the Krebs cycle was discovered by Hans Adolf Krebs in the year of 1937. The Krebs cycle occurs in an aerobic organism that is part of the metabolic pathway where it converts carbohydrates into water and carbon dioxide for usable energy in cellular respiration. The Krebs cycle starts with a glucose molecule and that glucose molecule is broken up due to the process of glycolysis into two pyruvates or pyruvic acids. Glyciolysis occurs in the cytoplasm. Remember, the Krebs cycle must go around two times to create one PGAL or G3P (glyceroldeyhde 3 phosphate). The next step of the Krebs cycle is the pyruvate joins with CoA, or coenzyme A, and forms a two carbon molecule called an acetyl group. After this acetyl group is formed, it joins with a four carbon molecule called oxaloacetic acid forming a six carbon molecule called citric acid. This is why the Krebs cycle is also referenced as the citric acid cycle. Throughout theKrebs cycle carbon dioxide molecules are released. For example, when the citric acid is oxidized back to Oxaloacetic acid it releases two carbon dioxide molecules becuase a six carbon molecule to a four carbon molecule realeses two carbons with resuts to two carbon dioxide molecules being released. WHen the Krebs cycle goes around ATP, NADH, FADH2 molecules are formed. Throughout two cycles of the Krebs cycle one is left with 4 ATP molecules, 10 NADH molecules, and 2 FADH2 molecules. Now, needed for cellualr respiration it is around 36-38 ATP molecules. So, you say how am I supposed to get 36-39 ATPs when I now only have 4? Well, when these molecules are brought down the electron transport chain each NADH molecules makes 3 ATP molecules. Also, each FADH2 molecule accounts for 2 ATP molecules. Now, if you do the math you have 4 ATPs+ 30 ATPs+4 ATPs which makes 38 ATP molecules!
Figure 1:

III. Biography of Investigator

The investigator and founder of the Krebs Cycle or Citric Acid Cycle was Hans Adolf Krebs. Hans was born in Hildesheim, Germany in the year of 1900. Krebs, at the age of 32 years old, joined the German army despited him being of the Jewish religion. In 1933, Hans went to studying medicine and the urea cycle at the University of Freiburg. He then had to flee Germany due to his Jewish religion and he then went to England. Hans was then invited to Cambridge to study with Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins. He finished research of the urea cycle in 1932 and he finished his reasearch of the Krebs cycle in 1937 at the University of Sheffield. He then was awarded a Nobel Prize in Physiology in 1953 and Hans was also knighted in 1958. It then was the year of 1981 when this point comes to everybody at a time in their life, Hans Adolf Krebs died. It's sad but when he was living he lived a beautifully long life in the fields of the sciences. (Which is awesome, of course.)
Figure 2:
IV. Impact on World Society The Krebs cycle has by no doubt change the scientific view of cellular respiration. People used to view eating foods and them giving you energy and used to think nothing of it. Now we know why if a little kid eats a candy bar why he gets so hyper because in the mitochondrion of the kid he is going through the process of the Krebs cycle and these sugars are converted into energy that we can use for our cells and their functions for everyday life.
V. Journal Article Review This journal article gives examples of all the labs that the scientists undertook. It first explains the Krebs cycle and then it later goes onto how their experiments prove the points stated during the explanation of the Krebs cycle. I know this article is very hard to understand and it has a very long title but it gives examples of the Krebs cycle outside of the textbook. It gives examples of how the contribution of gucogenogenesis and glycogenolysis to glucose and how it can change the carbon exchange at the beginning of the Krebs cycle.

VI. Videos

VII. References/Sources
1) Krebs, H. A., The History of The Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle, Perspect Biol. Med, 14: 166-167. (1970). Retrieved from:

2) Reagan, Doran, Steps of the Krebs Cycle. (1999) Retrieved from:

3) A Consoli, F Kennedy, J Miles, J Gerich. Determination of Krebs cycle metabolic carbon exchange in vivo and its use to estimate the individual contributions of gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis to overall glucose output in man. (1987) Retrieved from:

Jenny Riebesell's Blog: Glass Blowing!

Glass Blowing!
Glassblowing is a glass forming technique which was invented by the Phoenicians at approximately 50 BC. The evidence of the earliest glassblowing were found from waste of an old glass workshop, which were mainly findings of fragrance glass tubes and tiny glass bottles, thought to be used for religious waters and oils. The studio glass movement of 1962 began the popularity of glass blowing as an art. This is when Harvey Littleton,  a ceramics professor, and Dominick Labino,  a chemist and engineer, held workshops at the Toledo Museum of Art, where they started experimenting with melting glass in a small  furnace and creating blown glass art. 

A major breakthrough in glassmaking was the discovery of glassblowing, between 27 BC and AD 14, attributed to Syrian craftsmen from the Sidon-Babylon area. The long  metal tube used to blow the glass has changed very little since then, so the techniques need to blow glass is relatively the same, and if anything has just gotten easier as the time as gone on. In the last century BC, the ancient Romans then began blowing glass inside moulds, greatly increasing the variety of shapes possible for hollow glass items. Although glass blowing can be a dangerous task, many people enjoy the beautiful and unique products from them, making it a skill many people are passionate about.

Dominick Labino was an internationally-known scientist, inventor, artist and master craftsman in glass. Labino's art works in glass are in the permanent collections of more than 100 museums throughout the world. Dominick Labino was trained as an engineer at the Carnegie Institute of Technology  and began his professional career in Illinois.  Having always worked with glass, he wanted more ways he could produce creative pieces unlike any other. Dominick Labino then worked with Harvey Littleton and worked with mastering of melting glass for some time, he then had the idea of glass blowing when he saw an air bubble trapped in a small piece of the melting glass. The two glass makers then greated a long metal device to help blow air into glass. This was now the start of glass blowing as an art.

Impact on the Human World:
Glass blowing is an art that has been loved by people for many years. From making this as small as ornaments and bottles, to major glass statues; glass blowing is adored by many artist. Any thing that adds something new to the art industry is the main topic for discussion for some time, however with glass blowing since it has been around for sometime, it is always popular with art because of its unique and individual items.

Journal Review: 

"Artists Experiment With Glassblowing" is a Journal article written in 1964, shortly after glass blowing became a popular art. The article discribes the techniques used for glass blowing and all the fantastic new pieces that are now able to be in the art world. The article explains that after they would finish a piece they would display it for sometime, because of how interested people would be in the beauty that could be made with glass. This show how excited people were for this when it was first discovered and is still lasting now. 



"Artists Experiment With Glassblowing" from Wisconsin State Journal, 1964 July 12 . Harvey K. Littleton papers, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.

Thrall, A. (n.d.). A brief history of glass blowing. Retrieved from  

Wertheimer, J. (n.d.). History of glass blowing. Retrieved from 


The Internet

The Internet

Figure 1


How many people get home from school and immediately sit down at there computer and use the internet? You use it for Facebook, homework, video games, and email. Most people would be lost without the internet. I know I would. But does any one know how the internet was invented? Or how the internet has improved todays medical technology?


What is the internet. The internet is a global connection network that is interconnected buy fiber optic cabling to thousands of networks. The internet was brought into the world in 1965 and would change your world forever. The internet was originally designed to be used by the military during the Cold War but was soon used buy scientist to communicated to each other about there discoveries. The military need a way to communicate with universities with out being disrupted by bombs and or spies. The form of internet that was to solve this problem was called ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Networks). The make the ARPANET scientist used the basic design of the telephone network and added Packet Switching to it. Packet Switching divides the data into small blocks. Each block or packet can take a different path then the others to get to the destination were the blocks are reassembled into the original message. In September 1969 the first Packet switched computer network was installed at UCLA. By December three more had been installed in the United States. The internet started to grow rapidly in popularity and by 1971, the same year email was invented, there were 15 computer networks set up at major universities all over the United States. In Hawaii scientist created the ALOHAnet that allowed the many small islands of Hawaii to communicate with each other. This network became the first multi-access networks that, using radio technology, allowed users to share a single broadcasting medium. In 1980 a company called BITNET (Because it's Time NETwork) became the first email provider. Soon the internet had gone from a nationwide infrastructure to an international phenomenon. In the early 1980's set up an organization with the goal of bringing the internet to all French citizens. In the 1990's the world saw the creation of the World Wide Web (WWW). Over the next few years the internet saw major changes (mostly in speed) and by the end of the 1990's almost the entire world was connected to the internet.

Influence on the World:

As technology continues to advance as does the internet. The internet can now be used many diffident ways such as on cell phones or video game consoles. Today we use the internet for almost very thing. We can, talk to other people, pay taxes, get a college degree, and host business meetings through a video chat. The creation of search engines allows users to find information quickly and easily. The internet has even helped to save lives. Because of the internet doctors can get test results and important information faster therefor saving peoples lives by starting treatments earlier.


The Internet does not have a solo inventor and is made the way it is today by every person that has ever used the internet.

Journal Article:

In the journal article How the Internet Infrastructure Works Jeff Tyson explains how the internet grew and all of the different pieces need for it to work. This article is a great help to anyone who would like to find out how the internet works.